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Thread: Can a hard drive partition be expanded after install?

  1. #1
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    Jun 2009
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    Ubuntu 20.04 Focal Fossa

    Can a hard drive partition be expanded after install?

    I installed my Ubuntu server 20.04 on a 4TB drive and chose to use entire disk, now after I spent all dat setting it up I see it only shows its using a couple hundred gigs.

    Can I expand the partition or must I re-install and manually choose directory sizes on install?

  2. #2
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    Re: Can a hard drive partition be expanded after install?

    That depends - did you select LVM during install?

    Run this and post the output:

    Code:
    sudo fdisk -l
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  3. #3
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    Re: Can a hard drive partition be expanded after install?

    I have not tried to post "code" before so I hope it works right. I think is

    Code:
    mark123@4jetserver:~$ sudo fdisk -l[sudo] password for mark123:
    Disk /dev/loop0: 54.98 MiB, 57626624 bytes, 112552 sectors
    Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
    Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
    I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
    
    
    
    
    Disk /dev/loop1: 55.45 MiB, 58130432 bytes, 113536 sectors
    Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
    Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
    I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
    
    
    
    
    Disk /dev/loop2: 32.45 MiB, 34017280 bytes, 66440 sectors
    Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
    Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
    I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
    
    
    
    
    Disk /dev/loop3: 71.28 MiB, 74735616 bytes, 145968 sectors
    Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
    Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
    I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
    
    
    
    
    Disk /dev/loop4: 29.9 MiB, 31334400 bytes, 61200 sectors
    Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
    Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
    I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
    
    
    
    
    Disk /dev/loop5: 67.26 MiB, 70516736 bytes, 137728 sectors
    Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
    Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
    I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
    
    
    
    
    Disk /dev/loop6: 61.85 MiB, 64835584 bytes, 126632 sectors
    Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
    Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
    I/O size (minimum/optimal): 512 bytes / 512 bytes
    
    
    
    
    Disk /dev/sda: 3.65 TiB, 4000787030016 bytes, 7814037168 sectors
    Disk model: WDC WD40EFAX-68J
    Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
    Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 4096 bytes
    I/O size (minimum/optimal): 4096 bytes / 4096 bytes
    Disklabel type: gpt
    Disk identifier: 144D53EA-9AEE-43B7-AEEA-B98BF8D74DA1
    
    
    Device       Start        End    Sectors  Size Type
    /dev/sda1     2048       4095       2048    1M BIOS boot
    /dev/sda2     4096    2101247    2097152    1G Linux filesystem
    /dev/sda3  2101248 7814033407 7811932160  3.7T Linux filesystem
    
    
    
    
    Disk /dev/sdb: 2.75 TiB, 3000592982016 bytes, 5860533168 sectors
    Disk model: ST3000DM001-1ER1
    Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
    Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 4096 bytes
    I/O size (minimum/optimal): 4096 bytes / 4096 bytes
    Disklabel type: gpt
    Disk identifier: A20644A7-20F4-11EB-B63E-D48564A46205
    
    
    Device     Start        End    Sectors  Size Type
    /dev/sdb1     40 5860528064 5860528025  2.7T Microsoft basic data
    
    
    
    
    Disk /dev/sdc: 931.53 GiB, 1000204886016 bytes, 1953525168 sectors
    Disk model: ST1000DM003-9YN1
    Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
    Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 4096 bytes
    I/O size (minimum/optimal): 4096 bytes / 4096 bytes
    Disklabel type: dos
    Disk identifier: 0x0000433d
    
    
    Device     Boot Start        End    Sectors   Size Id Type
    /dev/sdc1          63 1953520064 1953520002 931.5G 83 Linux
    
    
    Partition 1 does not start on physical sector boundary.
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    
    Disk /dev/sde: 931.53 GiB, 1000204886016 bytes, 1953525168 sectors
    Disk model: ST1000DM003-1ER1
    Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
    Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 4096 bytes
    I/O size (minimum/optimal): 4096 bytes / 4096 bytes
    Disklabel type: gpt
    Disk identifier: 05F2103B-1FC9-11EB-B1B0-D48564A46205
    
    
    Device     Start        End    Sectors   Size Type
    /dev/sde1     40 1953520064 1953520025 931.5G Microsoft basic data
    
    
    
    
    Disk /dev/mapper/ubuntu--vg-ubuntu--lv: 200 GiB, 214748364800 bytes, 419430400 sectors
    Units: sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
    Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 4096 bytes
    I/O size (minimum/optimal): 4096 bytes / 4096 bytes
    mark123@4jetserver:~$
    and this from lsblk

    Code:
    mark123@4jetserver:~$ lsblkNAME                      MAJ:MIN RM   SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT
    loop0                       7:0    0    55M  1 loop /snap/core18/1880
    loop1                       7:1    0  55.4M  1 loop /snap/core18/2128
    loop2                       7:2    0  32.5M  1 loop /snap/snapd/13640
    loop3                       7:3    0  71.3M  1 loop /snap/lxd/16099
    loop4                       7:4    0  29.9M  1 loop /snap/snapd/8542
    loop5                       7:5    0  67.3M  1 loop /snap/lxd/21545
    loop6                       7:6    0  61.9M  1 loop /snap/core20/1169
    sda                         8:0    0   3.7T  0 disk
    ├─sda1                      8:1    0     1M  0 part
    ├─sda2                      8:2    0     1G  0 part /boot
    └─sda3                      8:3    0   3.7T  0 part
      └─ubuntu--vg-ubuntu--lv 253:0    0   200G  0 lvm  /
    sdb                         8:16   0   2.7T  0 disk
    └─sdb1                      8:17   0   2.7T  0 part /shares/d2p1
    sdc                         8:32   0 931.5G  0 disk
    └─sdc1                      8:33   0 931.5G  0 part /shares/d3p1
    sdd                         8:48   0 931.5G  0 disk
    └─sdd1                      8:49   0 931.5G  0 part /shares/d4p1
    sde                         8:64   0 931.5G  0 disk
    └─sde1                      8:65   0 931.5G  0 part /shares/d5p1
    sr0                        11:0    1  1024M  0 rom
    Last edited by deadflowr; October 26th, 2021 at 04:06 AM. Reason: switched tags from quote to code

  4. #4
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    Re: Can a hard drive partition be expanded after install?

    Good news. You are using LVM.

    Run the following:

    Code:
    sudo pvdisplay
    sudo vgdisplay
    sudo lvdisplay
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  5. #5
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    Re: Can a hard drive partition be expanded after install?

    Thanks for any advice you can give, I just installed Nexcloud, got my security certificates working on NC and webmin, I put a lot of time into it and its working well now, except for this mistake.

    pvdisplay
    Code:
      --- Physical volume ---  PV Name               /dev/sda3
      VG Name               ubuntu-vg
      PV Size               <3.64 TiB / not usable 3.00 MiB
      Allocatable           yes
      PE Size               4.00 MiB
      Total PE              953604
      Free PE               902404
      Allocated PE          51200
      PV UUID               qzrfCJ-CFuT-pzFV-hurx-Wiic-v1ew-21L9Sz
    vgdisplay
    Code:
      --- Volume group ---  VG Name               ubuntu-vg
      System ID
      Format                lvm2
      Metadata Areas        1
      Metadata Sequence No  4
      VG Access             read/write
      VG Status             resizable
      MAX LV                0
      Cur LV                1
      Open LV               1
      Max PV                0
      Cur PV                1
      Act PV                1
      VG Size               <3.64 TiB
      PE Size               4.00 MiB
      Total PE              953604
      Alloc PE / Size       51200 / 200.00 GiB
      Free  PE / Size       902404 / 3.44 TiB
      VG UUID               EcBIt8-zy4c-lLoS-ZIEJ-zTCB-Qsey-BtLf1X
    lvdisplay
    Code:
      --- Logical volume ---  LV Path                /dev/ubuntu-vg/ubuntu-lv
      LV Name                ubuntu-lv
      VG Name                ubuntu-vg
      LV UUID                CBfUpa-TlPH-sYq0-wgdd-OBo6-SMRK-5PLICJ
      LV Write Access        read/write
      LV Creation host, time ubuntu-server, 2021-10-23 16:03:09 -0400
      LV Status              available
      # open                 1
      LV Size                200.00 GiB
      Current LE             51200
      Segments               1
      Allocation             inherit
      Read ahead sectors     auto
      - currently set to     256
      Block device           253:0
    Last edited by deadflowr; October 26th, 2021 at 04:08 AM. Reason: switched tags from quote to code

  6. #6
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    Re: Can a hard drive partition be expanded after install?

    You should only need to extend the logical volume and then resize the file system.

    Check this out:
    https://slice2.com/2020/12/05/howto-...-ubuntu-18-04/
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    Tomorrow's an illusion and yesterday's a dream, today is a solution...

  7. #7
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    Re: Can a hard drive partition be expanded after install?

    Thank you, I will run through it tomorrow and let you know.

  8. #8
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    Re: Can a hard drive partition be expanded after install?

    Excellent choice in picking LVM. It provides options and flexibility, but it is also easy to make mistakes which can lead to a system that cannot be moved to new storage. There are lots of LVM commands to make it tremendously flexible. look at the command that start with pv* vg* and lv* on your system. Their names are descriptive. Learn the power of LVM.

    While Charles is correct that you can do the lvextend, I'd strongly suggest that isn't a good idea.

    LVM helps to keep the different parts of our systems separate. There are a number of reasons why you might want/need to do that.
    For example, the OS will likely never need more than 35G total. But if you put a bunch of non-OS junk into the same LV, it will make upgrades and replacement installs riskier.

    It is common for servers to have /var in a separate LV, since that is where logs and DB data ends up. Somethings things go sideways and the LV/partition with the logs will have 1G/min added. It doesn't take too long for even a 4TB disk to be filled. When the OS disk fills up, bad things happen - keeping logs on a different LV can prevent that. /var in a separate LV has been a best practice for decades, for good reason.
    Then there is personal data. That is usually put into /home - under each user's HOME. It is be common to have /home in a separate LV for decades. With good reason.

    Each LV can have different mount options. That means we can mount these other LVs in a way that is more secure by preventing dangerous ACLs, owners, and permissions. It is common to block setuid programs from /home and /tmp. Probably want to do that for /media/ as well.

    There are lots and lots of discussions about LVM layouts in these forums. I'd suggest reading a few of those. The main thing to understand for the best use of LVM storage is to only extend/create the LVs you want for the next 3 months. Extending an LV takes 5 seconds and zero downtime. Reducing an LV almost always requires booting from alternate media and screwing around with vgchange -ay and other commands. A VG that has all the storage allocated to LVs isn't very flexible. The real power from using LVM is in the flexibility over time, but that can only happen if there is plenty of unused storage available for that flexibility. For example, to perform safe backups of the data, you'll want to create a snapshot LV for each of the LVs, then have your backup tool backup that snapshot. While that snapshot exists, those blocks are frozen and any changes have to go elsewhere. IF the isn't any free space to hold the new data and the snapshot, then you can't use that method.

    In 25 yrs as a Unix/Linux admin, I've never been able to guess how much storage will be needed on any system. With LVM, I don't have to be correct 3 yrs in advance. I only need to be correct for the next 3 months. It is possible to have LVM automatically extend an LV 10G or 10% when it gets close to filling up. This can be the best of the flexibility with little hassle factor for the admin. But some LVs - like the one for /var shouldn't automatically extend - if they run out of storage, there's usually something wrong that needs to be researched and fixed.

    Also, while lvdisplay, vgdisplay and pvdisplay show all the information, it is extremely seldom to need all that data. There are summary commands with cleaner output - lvs, vgs, pvs ... try those out instead. I think you'll agree.

    Lastly, loop devices in df and lsblk output are useless. They aren't real storage and just misdirect people from seeing what's important. Here's an alias for lsblk and df that don't show fake storage.
    Code:
    alias lsblkt='lsblk -e 7 -o name,size,type,fstype,mountpoint'
    alias dft='df -hT -x squashfs -x tmpfs -x devtmpfs'
    Hope this is helpful in some way. I've never seen any good reason to see loop devices unless I'm specifically troubleshooting the loop mount. Beside that, those just get in the way of the important data. Delete it before posting here.

    Of course, each LV needs a mount line in the /etc/fstab. Those are pretty easy to setup, so don't be intimidated.

  9. #9
    Join Date
    Jun 2009
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    Re: Can a hard drive partition be expanded after install?

    Quote Originally Posted by CharlesA View Post
    You should only need to extend the logical volume and then resize the file system.

    Check this out:
    https://slice2.com/2020/12/05/howto-...-ubuntu-18-04/
    I thank you for this link, the procedure was a success as far as I can tell. I had already bookmarked the link and performed the procedure before seeing that post from TheFu. If there are any issues I guess I will be re-installing, but again so far so good. My DNS and Nextcloud are working great.

    Thanks again CharlesA

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