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Thread: Administrative User & Its Permissions.

  1. #11
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    Sep 2021
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    Re: Administrative User & Its Permissions.

    Thank u very much "ml9104".
    No, I did it manualy & I created 4 individual partitions for SWAP, /Boot, Root & another one for user. Now, I see just 2 drives in GUI file manager.

    https://freeimage.host/i/RPTun4

    <a href="https://freeimage.host/i/RPTun4"><img src="https://iili.io/RPTun4.md.jpg" alt="RPTun4.md.jpg" border="0"></a>
    https://freeimage.host/i/RPTaS9

  2. #12
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    Sep 2021
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    Re: Administrative User & Its Permissions.

    Thank U very much " grahammechanical "

    I Created only one user. each time I boot the machine, it requires the password.

  3. #13
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    Sep 2021
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    Thumbs up Re: Administrative User & Its Permissions.

    Quote Originally Posted by TheFu View Post
    On Unix-like OSes, storage management is a task for administrative users, not end-users. It requires more understanding than "that other OS" requires. You'll need to understand what these terms mean, exactly, in their correct uses:

    drive - on "that other OS", you may have learned "C: drive" and "D: Drive" - that is factually incorrect. Neither C nor D are "drives." They are partitions.

    partition - a partition is a sub-section of a total storage device. Every "drive" can have between 0 and 128 partitions. Partitions are usually split based on contiguous location on the storage media. With flash and SSD storage, that doesn't really exist anymore like it does on older "spinning disks."

    file system - a file system has to be "formatted" onto a partition before it can be mounted. In "that other OS", there are effectively just 3 file systems used - NTFS, exFAT, and FAT32. In Linux, there are 50 file systems from which we can choose in addition to those three from "that other OS". However, for Linux programs and user's HOME directories, only native Linux file systems can be used. Examples are ext3, ext4, xfs, btrfs, zfs, f2fs, reiserfs, but there are many, many, others. These are all POSIX file systems, unlike the file systems from "that other OS." This is a requirement for Unix permissions which include the owner, group, ACLs, xattrs, and file attributes. That is what allows the chown and chmod commands on every Unix-like OS to work. Those commands do not work on the 3 file systems from "that other OS". Those file systems can only be used for non-secure data storage, nothing else.

    mount - only root or a userid that can elevate to root authority can mount storage on Unix systems. Some Linux distros have hidden that by automatically mounting storage, usually USB/flash/SDHC storage, under /media/{userid}/{Partition LABEL} in what appears to be automatic. This is for convenience and has many security implications. The power to mount, is the power to destroy. Learn that. It will take some experience, usually years, to understand why that is true. There are 3 ways to mount a file system into Linux in a way that it is a "real mount". That last term is mine. There are fake mounts too. More on those later. Real mounts can be accomplished by:
    • editing the /etc/fstab file and putting the mount information for the filesystem, location to be mounted onto, and options.
    • using the "mount" command, using the mount information for the filesystem, location to be mounted onto, and options.
    • setting up autofs, which can mount storage as-requested, using the mount information for the filesystem, location to be mounted onto, and options.

    This applies to all file systems. Native and from "that other OS". There is no good way to mount by point-n-click on storage using a GUI. In general, that creates a "fake mount" which has some liabilities, though there are exceptions in a few specific situations. For file systems from "that other OS", the GUI fake-mount causes permissions and performance issues on most Linuxen. Buried deep in the menus of gnome-disks (if you setup has that program), it is possible to find a way to mount storage with a real mount that will work fast.

    A while ago, I wrote detailed steps to mount storage Https://ubuntuforums.org/showthread....9#post14048909 which also provided tips after over 25 yrs of doing these things. It has the best, easiest, method that I know, which will also be fast and efficient with the storage. I suggest using the LABEL mount method and show specific commands to run. There are other methods, but those use confusing random identifiers that we humans don't really "get" intuitively like a LABEL name can provide.
    Thank U very much. Very very good & helpful. This information helps me and others.

  4. #14
    Join Date
    Jun 2019
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    880
    Distro
    Lubuntu 20.04 Focal Fossa

    Re: Administrative User & Its Permissions.

    Open a Terminal (Ctrl+Alt+T) and issue the command lsblk.
    Show us the output.

  5. #15
    Join Date
    Mar 2010
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    Squidbilly-Land
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    Hidden!
    Distro
    Ubuntu

    Re: Administrative User & Its Permissions.

    Quote Originally Posted by ml9104 View Post
    Open a Terminal (Ctrl+Alt+T) and issue the command lsblk.
    Show us the output.
    Yes, PLEASE. Text only. Not an image. We can easily use the text to create the exact line(s) you want in the /etc/fstab ... assuming you can't follow the links I've already posted and do it yourself. This command would be a little better than just a plain lsblk. It tells us specific things.
    Code:
    lsblk -e 7 -o name,size,type,fstype,mountpoint,label

  6. #16
    Join Date
    Jun 2019
    Location
    Dirndl-land
    Beans
    880
    Distro
    Lubuntu 20.04 Focal Fossa

    Re: Administrative User & Its Permissions.

    I think I understand the problem now. aabedii is caught in a DOS/Windows mindset loop.
    Trying to explore disks in the file manager (in this case, PCManFM-Qt) makes no sense at all. I get exactly the same error messages when trying to do the same.

    @aabedii: there are NO C: or D: or ... drives in UNIX/Linux systems, there is only a directory/file tree.
    Disks are called sda, sdb, sdc etc. and you can't access those directly. Partitions are called sda1, sda2, sda3... or sdb1, sdb2... and those can also not be accessed directly.
    Those partitions are "mounted" under different directories, meaning that they are storage for those directories (with subdirectories).

    The lsblk command will show you where your storage is mounted/allocated.
    Here's an example from my very simple laptop:
    Code:
    macro@macro-pc:~$ lsblk
    NAME   MAJ:MIN RM   SIZE RO TYPE MOUNTPOINT
    sda      8:0    0 223,6G  0 disk 
    ├─sda1   8:1    0  29,3G  0 part /
    ├─sda2   8:2    0 188,3G  0 part /home
    └─sda3   8:3    0     6G  0 part [SWAP]
    sr0     11:0    1  1024M  0 rom
    But what is the file manager you're using? It looks a bit like PCManFM-Qt, but it's not. More like some strange ripoff.
    Last edited by ml9104; September 19th, 2021 at 08:18 PM.

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