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Thread: How to install to separate Linux partition without damaging windows

  1. #11
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    Re: How to install to separate Linux partition without damaging windows

    My inference from the discussion is that "/" is the location the kernel/OS, applications will be installed, and "/home" is where user data will go.
    "/" is the symbol used on Linux to represent the root of the entire filesystem of the operating system. Applications/software are installed in various locations on the "/" of the filesystem. /home is under "/" and /home is where the user personal data (documents, pictures, etc.) is stored and that is under /home/username. If you open a terminal and enter this command you will see /home as one of the options.

    Code:
     ls /
    Can I direct both "/" and "/home" to the same partition?
    Yes and that has been the default install on many Linux systems for decades. During the install, if you use the manual option (Something Else) you can select different options such as creating a separate /home or data partition.

    Or alternatively, can I place "/" in my EXT3 partition, and / "/home" in my NTFS partition?
    You can but it won't work. Both the "/" filesystem and the /home partition need to be on a Linux filesystem. If you put either on a windows filesystem such as ntfs, it will not work anymore than installing windows would work on a Linux filesystem such as ext3/4..

    (I did not setup a separate partition for my Windows data. It's in the MyDocuments folder in the same NTFS partition as the Windows OS.) Is there a good reason why I should reformat to EXT4?
    If you plan to share and enable access to this data from both windows and Linux, best leave it ntfs. Primary reason for that is that Linux is capable of recognizing, reading and writing to an ntfs filesystem and a default windows install is not capable of either reading or writing to a Linux filesystem. Having a separate partition for shared data is a good idea. You should not be accessing the windows OS partition as there is too much risk for corrupting something due to either a lack of knowledge or by accident.

    So "/" does not identify the location of the boot loader?
    Yes it does, in fact it tells you the location of everything. It's somewhat equivalent to the C drive used on windows which is a carryover from the pre-windows days of the 1970's when computers came with 2 floppy drives and a tiny (by current standards) hard drive, hence the C as A and B were reserved for the floppies. You can see the root of the entire system with the ls / command.

    And I should select "sda
    That installs boot code into the MBR of the drive which is required. The code in the MBR will point to the system partition where the boot files reside and then boot the system.

    Reading back through your posts I see in your first posts that you created 2 swap partitions, one you said for windows and one for Linux. Windows doesn't use a swap partition, they have a different method so delete one of them.

    Also, in your initial post you indicate you put the Ubuntu live installer on a CD. That's a type right. Ubuntu won't come close to fitting on a CD so you must be using a DVD or USB.

    Take a look at the link below which explains the installation and shows selecting a mount point.

    https://www.itsupportwale.com/blog/m...4-lts-desktop/

  2. #12
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    Xubuntu

    Re: How to install to separate Linux partition without damaging windows

    If your hardware is old, Xubuntu may be a better choice. Its installer looks very like the screenshots from the link posted by grahammechanical. There is no trouble with asking for a bootloader location.

    "/" or "root" is indeed where the system is installed. It's the equivalent of "C:/" in Windows (when you have a single drive and single partition).
    "/home" is indeed where all user data are stored. It's the equivalent of "C:/users/" in Windows. If you have several users, then each one will have it's profile in that /home. Something like /home/paul in parallel with /home/peter.
    You can have /home in the root (/) or on another partition, up to you. It can be modified after installation. Better use the latest ext4 IMHO. Using NTFS for /home is NOT a godd idea. There is no point having such file system for a 100% Linux folder. The only point using NTFS is to share data with a dual boot so that you can access the data from both Windows and Ubuntu.

    The mount point is just a folder that is used as the root of a partition when mounted. If you have a partition sda7, giving it a mounting point like /home/paul/documents will make your file browser look at the sda7 partition when accessing the /home/paul/documents folder. This is completely transparent for the user. In Windows, a partition has a letter like F:. There may be a way to make it act like in Linux.

    For a first install, don't bother to add too much partitions. Just use a big one for / so that all fits in there. After you've been accustomed to Ubuntu, then you'll be able to tweak the system as you like.

    As for the structure, I would see it differently: there is a whole system (in /, that has many folders) and user data are stored in /home. Applications can be installed in different places (mostly /opt and /usr).
    Ubuntu user # 14396

  3. #13
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    Re: How to install to separate Linux partition without damaging windows

    Some details on file structure, but you really do not need to know details to install & use Linux.
    https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Filesy...archy_Standard

    New users can just install in one ext4 formatted partition with /.
    That still is that standard default install. But assumes either dual boot or smaller drives from years ago.
    Now we have TB sized drives & then splitting / (root) from /home is usually recommended.
    Those installing servers may split other folders in / into partitions, but normal desktop does not need that. If seeing older instructions or advice from a server type install, ignore all the extra mounts of other system partitions. Just more partitions to manage & make sure one is not almost full when other is almost empty.
    For more info on UEFI boot install & repair - Regularly Updated :
    http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=2147295
    Please use Thread Tools above first post to change to [Solved] when/if answered completely.

  4. #14
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    Ubuntu Studio Development Release

    Re: How to install to separate Linux partition without damaging windows

    Quote Originally Posted by Engineeringtech View Post
    GrahamMechanical-
    Thank you for the link to the procedure. My inference from the discussion is that "/" is the location the kernel/OS, applications will be installed, and "/home" is where user data will go. Is that correct? Can I direct both "/" and "/home" to the same partition? Or alternatively, can I place "/" in my EXT3 partition, and / "/home" in my NTFS partition? (I did not setup a separate partition for my Windows data. It's in the MyDocuments folder in the same NTFS partition as the Windows OS.) Is there a good reason why I should reformat to EXT4?

    Oldfred-

    So "/" does not identify the location of the boot loader? And I should select "sda", rather than a partition for it's location? I only have the one drive with four partitions. I believe when I partitioned the drive with Partition Commander that I made four primary partitions.


    I really don't understand all this terminology. I wish someone would define "mount point" "/" , "/home", for me, and or direct me to a diagram or video which explains the structure of Ubuntu Linux. I know for instance that Windows places the OS in the "System" folder, and applications in their own folder. I assume Linux has something similar.

    I'm 66 and in very poor health, with failing vision. This stuff is tough for me to understand. I get overloaded fast.
    Oldfred is the guru here. Sometimes he doesn't quite get how hard it can be for newcomers to linux, but he is always right......

    Don't think of linux in the same way you did with windows. In linux EVERYTHING is a file, yes I literally mean everything.

    / is where you can really mess up!!! It is the root of all things in your system, everything is derived from there.

    For instance, /media is where drives and portable storage is "mounted", so the system can use it.

    /home is where your personal files are located as your user like c:\windows\users\engineeringtech !!

    Things to bear in mind-linux will prompt you for your password when using sudo-it does it for a reason-you can stuff up your system. The windows nag screen is a pitiful affair by comparison......

    dot files eg .engineeringtech.config are hidden files within your home directory that contain all the configurations of your desktop and environment.

    don't mess with them willy nilly.

    By the way, I was 70 in July and I am still struggling with many linux things after playing with it back in the late 90's, but it is wayyyy easier than windows when things go badly.....

    All the best and persevere, we are all here to help you on your journey. Tony.
    Asus Z270i7 16gb rm 8tb GT1660 TSB6205 Quad tunr Ubnt Studio 21.04 Greedy/Win 10 Be/FE mythtv 0.32Homerun dual netwk tunr 55¨ Smsng ES8000 Lap Smsng NP R580 i5 nvidia linux Ultimate/Win 10

  5. #15
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    Ubuntu

    Re: How to install to separate Linux partition without damaging windows

    Again, I do not think you have to know all this to use Linux & install grub as part of Ubuntu install.
    It like having to know how to tune up a car. Info if you want to now details, but not required.

    Grub is the Linux boot loader.
    Windows boot loader does not have a name, but also is in MBR - master boot record.
    With BIOS/MBR, each drive has only one MBR.
    Since Windows only wants to boot Windows, we can use grub to boot both Linux & Windows.
    But grub only boots working Windows, so sometimes you may need a Windows repair/recovery flash drive or Windows installers repair mode.

    http://www.multibooters.co.uk/multiboot.html
    http://www.multibooters.com/guides/v...-sequence.html
    Shows Windows has boot code in MBR, PBR & inside Windows boot partition & main partition.

    Above is more for Windows, but boot process is the same.
    And because MBR is tiny, grub has parts of its boot code in various places.
    Its in MBR, sectors after MBR, and in the Ubuntu / partition.

    GRUB 2 - GRand Unified Bootloader has three main parts plus a boot loader installed to the MBR:

    1. /etc/default/grub - the file containing GRUB 2 menu settings.
    2. /etc/grub.d/ - the directory containing GRUB 2 menu creating scripts.And a place for totally custom entries 40_custom.
    3. /boot/grub/grub.cfg - the GRUB 2 configuration file, not editable.

    Oldfred is not always right, but has been working on boot issues (his own) since 2006. And Forum boot issues both old BIOS originally and UEFI since 2009. But as with anything, still learning & trying to update notes with all the new changes. Still have old notes for old BIOS systems, but forgetting a lot of that now.
    For more info on UEFI boot install & repair - Regularly Updated :
    http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=2147295
    Please use Thread Tools above first post to change to [Solved] when/if answered completely.

  6. #16
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    Re: How to install to separate Linux partition without damaging windows

    Thanks everyone.. I am going to print this whole thread at work, and will take a while to digest it all. (have no printer at home) Yes, I still work 4 days a week even with my health problems. I will let you know how I make out in a few days.

  7. #17
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    Feb 2011
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    117

    Re: How to install to separate Linux partition without damaging windows

    I want to thank the people who tried to help me with the the dual boot. I read the entire thread several times and I think I am too confused to proceed. My health problems continue to get worse, and I need my computer right now. So I can't risk damaging it. Perhaps eventually I will buy a separate computer and load just Linux on it.

  8. #18
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    Ubuntu Studio Development Release

    Re: How to install to separate Linux partition without damaging windows

    Quote Originally Posted by Engineeringtech View Post
    I want to thank the people who tried to help me with the the dual boot. I read the entire thread several times and I think I am too confused to proceed. My health problems continue to get worse, and I need my computer right now. So I can't risk damaging it. Perhaps eventually I will buy a separate computer and load just Linux on it.
    Engineeringtech- Good idea, let the info percolate around in your brain for a few weeks. It is all very confusing, we have all been there before you and sympathise. We are here to help when you are ready.

    As a suggestion, go to your local secondhand/pawn shop/ebay/gumtree and grab a used laptop for your experiments in linux. You can get a reasonable one as cheap as chips, certainly good enough to experiment with linux on. Chances are you can get a post 2015 Samsung or HP for a couple of hundred dollars (I presume you are across the pond). The batteries won't be up to much but you can run them on mains ok.

    Just a thought, cheers Tony.
    Asus Z270i7 16gb rm 8tb GT1660 TSB6205 Quad tunr Ubnt Studio 21.04 Greedy/Win 10 Be/FE mythtv 0.32Homerun dual netwk tunr 55¨ Smsng ES8000 Lap Smsng NP R580 i5 nvidia linux Ultimate/Win 10

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