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Thread: Can't Create Bootable DVD Of Ubuntu 18.04

  1. #11
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    Re: Can't Create Bootable DVD Of Ubuntu 18.04

    It sucks because I'm doing this for a friend; he uses a desktop with Windows 7 that's going to reach EOL on January 14, 2020. Being less-than-tech-literate, I gave him three options: either upgrade to Windows 10 for $139, buy a cheap Chromebook for under $300, or have me install Ubuntu/Lubuntu for free. I created a bootable USB stick with Ubuntu, but his desktop wouldn't boot, even after changing the boot order in the BIOS. Hence, the reason I need a live CD.

    I'm probably going to get an external USB CD/DVD drive with a separate power source on Amazon. Check back in a few days. The thing is I'm going to have to get it soon, to give him enough time to try a Linux-based OS, so that he can make his final decision on Black Friday, when everything is on sale, if he decides to buy a Chromebook, instead.

    Also, I can't help but notice that you had me use xorriso to create the bootable DVD, would you know by any chance if xorriso is OS agnostic? I usually like to stick to utilities that are OS agnostic, like xdg-open to open files. In the past, when I was first learning how to use the command line, I've used wodim to burn image files to DVDs.
    Last edited by John_Patrick_Mason; November 18th, 2019 at 08:32 AM.

  2. #12
    Join Date
    Feb 2013
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    76

    Re: Can't Create Bootable DVD Of Ubuntu 18.04

    Hi,

    > I created a bootable USB stick with Ubuntu, but his desktop wouldn't
    > boot,

    Did you use a plain copy method (dd, cp, ...) ?
    There are old howtos around which propose unpacking the ISO and installing
    the files in the filesystem of the USB stick.
    Those might not work any more, because they rely much on the way how
    the kernel is supposed to start the operating system after having been
    started itself by the bootloader.

    But if the machine boots normally from its normal disk instead of
    complaining or being stuck in boot process, then it is most likely the
    firmware which does not work with the USB stick. Try all USB ports
    of the machine. Some BIOSes inspect not all of them.


    > I'm probably going to get an external USB CD/DVD drive with a separate power
    > source on Amazon.

    An alternative would be buying an Ubuntu DVD. Like
    https://www.amazon.com/Ubuntu-Linux-.../dp/B07CWLKBDY
    https://www.osdisc.com/products/linux/ubuntu

    (But of course, everybody should have a working DVD burner.)


    > Also, I can't help but notice that you had me use xorriso to create
    > the bootable DVD, would you know by any chance if xorriso is OS agnostic?

    When it comes to burning a bootable ISO image by GNU/Linux: Surely yes.

    That's because the bytes in the ISO image constitute the bootability.
    The burn program only has to put those bytes 1:1 onto the medium.
    (Same with USB stick, of course.)
    xorriso burns via libburn, which has OS adapters for Linux, FreeBSD,
    NetBSD, and Solaris.

    When it comes to making a bootable ISO: Quite yes.

    It is mainly in use within the GNU/Linux world. The other larger free OSes
    take pride in having their own ISO production software. But the really small
    ones are again users of grub-mkrescue and thus xorriso.

    Your Ubuntu ISO was made by xorriso. Very old xorriso, but still good enough.
    Code:
    Preparer Id  : XORRISO-1.2.4 2012.07.20.130001, ...
    xorriso only packs up what the distro developers have prepared.
    Ubuntu ISOs boot on legacy PC-BIOS by ISOLINUX and on EFI by GRUB.
    Both boot loaders then start a Linux kernel which pulls up a GNU/Linux
    system.
    This aspect of xorriso runs on any X/Open compliant system. X/Open includes
    MS-Windows with e.g. Cygwin as X/Open layer and contemporary MacOS.
    A portability problem might arise if it gets the task to prepare an
    ISO using a yet unknown bootloader system.

    Have a nice day

    Thomas

  3. #13
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    Jun 2014
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    282

    Re: Can't Create Bootable DVD Of Ubuntu 18.04

    Quote Originally Posted by scdbackup
    Did you use a plain copy method (dd, cp, ...) ?
    Nope. I used Startup Disk Creator, through the GUI, to create the bootable USB stick, since I'm more used to creating live DVDs, at least, that's what I've done in the past.

    Quote Originally Posted by scdbackup
    But if the machine boots normally from its normal disk instead of
    complaining or being stuck in boot process, then it is most likely the
    firmware which does not work with the USB stick. Try all USB ports
    of the machine. Some BIOSes inspect not all of them.
    Huh, I didn't even think of that. I tested the USB stick, at home, to see if it would boot, and sure enough it did, but I only tested the front-facing USB ports on my friend's desktop. Maybe next time try the ones in the back? Also, which firmware are we talking about? The firmware of the USB stick itself, or the firmware of my friend's front-facing USB port?

    Quote Originally Posted by scdbackup
    Yeah, but, now, I have all these blank spare DVDs laying around, and if I'm going to install Ubuntu -- or one of its flavors -- on somebody's computer, I'd rather give them a physical installation disc, since those are cheap, rather than give them a brand new USB stick for free.

    Quote Originally Posted by scdbackup
    When it comes to burning a bootable ISO image by GNU/Linux: Surely yes.
    How does it compare to wodim for creating live CDs? Is there a clear winner/standard in the Linux world?
    Last edited by John_Patrick_Mason; November 18th, 2019 at 10:29 AM.

  4. #14
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    Feb 2013
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    76

    Re: Can't Create Bootable DVD Of Ubuntu 18.04

    Hi,

    > which firmware are we talking about?

    The mainboard firmware. In case of x86 processors the two candidates
    are commonly known as BIOS and EFI. This firmware shall inspect the
    attached storage media for boot sectors. In case it finds some, it shall
    start the program to which the boot sector points.

    In case of BIOS and USB stick, this is the MBR x86 machine code.
    In case of EFI and USB stick, it is the EFI System Partition, which holds
    a FAT filesystem containing a start program with a name which is defined
    by UEFI specs for each processor type. (E.g. \EFI\BOOT\BOOTX64.EFI for
    64 bit x86 processors.)
    Ubuntu 18.04.03 ISO offers both, so that it is supposed to boot on BIOS
    and EFI alike. (The boot menus look different because they are shown by
    different boot loaders ISOLINUX and GRUB, respectively.)


    > I'd rather give them a physical installation disc, since those are cheap,
    > rather than give them a brand new USB stick for free.

    The links i gave offer Ubuntu desktop DVDs. 6 to 10 USD.
    But yeah. If the drive is dead you should get a new one anyway.


    > How does it compare to wodim for creating live CDs? Is there a clear
    > winner/standard in the Linux world?

    wodim is a burn program. Not advised for DVD, though. Its last maintainer
    stated in https://lists.debian.org/debian-user.../msg01078.html
    cdrkit [the package containing wodim and genisoimage] is definitely now EOL,
    and I don't use it myself for writing DVD or BD media. You can quote me
    on that.
    We have growisofs and the libburn based programs. No need to play with a
    mummy like wodim, unless you need its capability to create exotic CD formats.
    If you really want to run a program from this code base, you should compile
    cdrtools in order to get Joerg Schilling's cdrecord, from which wodim was
    forked in 2006.
    Being biased, i state that Andy Polyakov's growisofs and my libburn are
    more compliant to MMC specs for DVD and BD, than cdrecord is. Joerg does
    not agree to this assessment, of course.

    Have a nice day

    Thomas

  5. #15
    Join Date
    Dec 2009
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    Fareham, UK
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    2,346
    Distro
    Ubuntu

    Re: Can't Create Bootable DVD Of Ubuntu 18.04

    Any chance that you could use your friends machine to create the bootable media?

    If yes I suggest https://cdburnerxp.se/en/home this for creating the DVD
    and this for creating the USB https://rufus.ie/

    Both are Windows only apps.

    On your own machine have you tried this to create a bootable USB? https://help.ubuntu.com/community/mkusb

    There is another tool to use. https://www.balena.io/etcher/
    This one is cross-platform. I do not know if it will write to a DVD because I have never tried that aspect.

  6. #16
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    Feb 2013
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    76

    Re: Can't Create Bootable DVD Of Ubuntu 18.04

    Hi,

    westie457 wrote:
    > https://rufus.ie/

    This is indeed a suitable tool to put any USB stick bootable GNU/Linux ISO
    onto an USB stick. Use its "dd" mode in order to get the boot equipment
    which is prepared in the ISO, not the equipment which Rufus would install.


    > https://help.ubuntu.com/community/mkusb

    This looks like a more user-safe tool which acts like our GNU dd or cp.
    mkusb will 'use the whole device', actually only the head end (size of the
    iso file), but the rest of the device is not available. mkusb simply clones
    the ISO 9660 file system with its content from the iso file. This ISO 9660
    file system works from CD/DVD disks, and also from USB drives. After using
    a USB pendrive like this, you make a new partition table and file system,
    if you want to use it for another purpose.
    [...]
    The crucial task of mkusb was and is to help selecting the correct device
    and avoid overwriting other devices.
    It shall be praised for that !

    So (assumed that mkusb works ok) i revoke my proposal
    Code:
    dd if=/home/mason/Downloads/ubuntu-18.04.3-desktop-amd64.iso bs=1M of=/dev/sdX
    in favor of this tool. I keep up the proposal to make a backup by dd and
    gzip. The backup restore step could become more safe by
    Code:
    gunzip </my/big/filesystem/stick_sdX.img.gz >/my/big/filesystem/stick_sdX.fake.iso
    mkusb /my/big/filesystem/stick_sdX.fake.iso
    Have a nice day

    Thomas
    Last edited by scdbackup; November 18th, 2019 at 12:42 PM. Reason: Added a missing pronoun

  7. #17
    Join Date
    Nov 2011
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    Re: Can't Create Bootable DVD Of Ubuntu 18.04

    @scdbackup,

    mkusb version 12 alias dus can extract directly from a gzip or xz compressed image file, so
    Code:
    dus /my/big/filesystem/stick_sdX.img.gz
    will do the job, to help you identify and select the correct target device and extract from the compressed image

    This is described when you use the option -h,
    Code:
    $ dus -h
    dus 12.3.8
    Usage:
    ---- Make USB or memory card install drive from ISO or image file ---
    dus
    dus file.iso
    dus "quote file name (1) with special characters.iso"
    dus file.img
    dus file.img.gz
    dus file.img.xz
    dus file.tar       # if an mkusb tarfile for Windows
    ---- Clone a device (typically a CD drive or USB drive) -------------
    dus /dev/sr0       # example of CD drive
    ---- Wipe or restore a USB drive or memory card ---------------------
    dus
    ---- Options --------------------------------------------------------
    dus -d [file.iso]  # dialog (text mode menus)
    dus -t [file.iso]  # plain text mode interface
    dus -h             # usage text
    dus -v             # version
    mkusb will 'use the whole device', actually only the head end (size of the
    iso file), but the rest of the device is not available.
    This used to be true, but starting with Ubuntu 19.10, the drive space behind the cloned image of the iso file can be used for persistence. A partition with label 'casper-rw' can be created there and you can save installed programs, tweaks and personal data files. See this link.
    Last edited by sudodus; November 18th, 2019 at 05:22 PM.

  8. #18
    Join Date
    Feb 2013
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    76

    Re: Can't Create Bootable DVD Of Ubuntu 18.04

    Hi,

    sudodus wrote:
    > mkusb version 12 alias dus can extract directly from a gzip or xz
    > compressed image file

    Is there a reason known why this tool is not available as Debian
    package ?
    https://www.debian.org/CD/faq/#write-usb could really need safer advise
    than leaving alone the user with "Be careful to make sure you have the
    right device name".

    With DVDs we have the lucky situation that /dev/sr0 cannot be easily
    confused with the hard disk /dev/sda. Further the usual distros allow
    the desktop user rw-access to /dev/sr* (often via ACL). So even the burn
    programs need no special privileges.
    But with USB stick it is always a lengthy warning story to tell the users.

    Have a nice day

    Thomas

  9. #19
    Join Date
    Nov 2011
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    Re: Can't Create Bootable DVD Of Ubuntu 18.04

    @scdbackup,

    I have tried, but the Debian gurus that are managing the repositories are not interested. So I have failed to get it into a repository. The best I can do is to maintain the PPA, 'ppa:mkusb/ppa'

  10. #20
    Join Date
    Feb 2013
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    76

    Re: Can't Create Bootable DVD Of Ubuntu 18.04

    Hi,

    yes, Debian can be quite a closed clam. But debian-cd and debian-live
    should be interested in such a tool. I myself am upstream programmer and
    "sponsored" uploader of my own software. So i cannot decide nor am i fully
    skilled as Debian packager.

    Where can i learn about the dependencies at compile time and run time ?
    Is everything that's needed already provided by Debian in the necessary
    versions ? Any idea why it was not accepted ?

    (My mail address is scdbackup@gmx.net)

    Have a nice day

    Thomas

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