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Thread: what i would like to do with ubuntu server - need pointers

  1. #11
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    Re: what i would like to do with ubuntu server - need pointers

    Quote Originally Posted by jwhiz56 View Post
    TheFu, as noted in my first post, i'm a 3 day old user of ubuntu, coming from a windows world. I don't know how to do the most basic things like copy/paste/transfer between the ubuntu machine and my windows machine (never heard of 'putty'). so i'm sorry to have offended you with the screen shots. I will understand if you don't want to deal with an absolute beginner.
    No offence taken and my statements about images were meant as a slight joke, but also serious. These forums are a text-based medium, so using text is always preferred.

    Putty (google for it) has been THE ssh client for Windows since the 1990s. Only recently did MSFT add ssh to Win10. I've never seen it and definitely never used it. If the Win10 ssh client runs inside any Windows cmd/powershell, that is a total pain to use for copy/paste. Copy/paste in terminals is extremely handy. Linux terminals and Putty make that really easy and highly efficient.

    It isn't that I don't want to help. The real issue is that since I haven't been a beginner in Unix in almost 30 yrs, I forget small steps that aren't issues for anyone except absolute beginners. That means that sometimes my answers are confusing and frustrating in a medium like this. People trying to run Ubuntu "server" tend to be much more technical and have a very strong desire to learn Linux. If that isn't you, perhaps starting with a normal Linux desktop OS for the first 6 months would be a better choice? The desktops have a nice GUI and don't prevent running all the server things. With the GUI, desktop things are easier, while the server things are should still be handled in the "server way", that usually means via text configuration.
    I've taught beginning Linux and and beginning systems administration with Linux at the local University. Every book I've seen is always out of date before printing.
    https://tutorials.ubuntu.com/
    https://help.ubuntu.com/ which leads to ... https://help.ubuntu.com/lts/serverguide/
    Before attempting to run a server, having an intermediate level of shell/CLI knowledge is very useful.
    http://linuxcommand.org/tlcl.php is a nice, free, no-hassle, book that you can purchase, or just download the PDF. Multiple languages.
    There's an Ubuntu help page that lists online Ubuntu and Debian guides. https://help.ubuntu.com/community/ExternalGuides
    And because I've been asked how to Learn Linux hundreds of times, I wrote my own.
    https://blog.jdpfu.com/2014/12/28/learning-linux which have links ordered so the most important things are learned first .... IMHO. Everyone learns Unix/Linux in a slightly different way. The most efficient way, isn't usually picked, because it is pretty boring after the first 2 hrs is done. The problem with learning a skill as you need it, is that we skip over basic skills so doing the step-by-step stuff is much harder than it needs to be. For example, everyone puts off learning about Unix file and directory permissions, but they are the cornerstone of all Unix security. The Unix model is used by every popular OS, but Windows uses it in a much more permissive way, so Windows users don't normally need to understand much. Unix systems aren't as forgiving.

    See how my writing can be confusing and frustrating?

    Morbius1 knows Windows integration stuff far better than almost everyone else around here.
    I think 1 step might have been missed in the samba setup, but perhaps it has been addressed in the newer samba releases. I always have to create a samba userid using smbpasswd on the samba server before any connections work. Perhaps the "guest" part of the configuration removes that need?
    Last edited by TheFu; 1 Week Ago at 01:43 PM.

  2. #12
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    Re: what i would like to do with ubuntu server - need pointers

    you didn't mention how you want users to connect to shared files. there is also the option of setting up your own cloud using owncloud, nextcloud or seafile.

    auto mount partitions: https://www.binarytides.com/ubuntu-a...ition-startup/


    you need to seriously think about NTFS file system on linux server. while it works, you might hit obstacles. for example if file system goes corrupt it is hard to get it back with linux tools. there is also the permissions issue already mentioned. it all depends what kind of server this is and who the users are (LAN - internet, few users - many).

    you might also want to explore some server GUI's to make it easier for you. Zentyal is small business server with GUI and is based on Ubuntu, Ajenti is a nice webgui that works on Ubuntu, Open media vault is a Debian based distro aimed at storage servers. it comes with a nice webgui. Webgui is accessed via web browser. just have a look at them and explore a bit. maybe you see something you like. i find it easier to do things in user interface than in command line. not always the most efficient but it get's the job done.
    Easy to understand Ubuntu manual with lots of pics: http://ubuntu-manual.org/
    Do i need antivirus/firewall in linux?
    Disk backup (works on newer PC): Clonezilla

  3. #13
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    Re: what i would like to do with ubuntu server - need pointers

    All,

    I didn't want you to think I disappeared. real life has been hectic lately. I also bought 3 books, 2 on server and 1 on workstation. I using them to help myself. I do have one question. In several replies, I've been told to edit the file in \etc\…. and I use nano to do that and I get a blank edit panel with a message I don't have authorization. either ya'll are leaving out a step or i'm not doing it right. any help?

    thanks so much for all your help so far.

    john

    edited to add book titles:

    Mastering Ubuntu server, 2nd edition - server v 18.04
    Ubuntu 18.04 LS server admin & reference
    Ubuntu unleashed 2019 edition v. 18.04, 18.10, 19.04 & 19.10
    Last edited by jwhiz56; 1 Week Ago at 10:31 PM.

  4. #14
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    Re: what i would like to do with ubuntu server - need pointers

    Did those books cover file and directory permissions yet? Unix systems are multi-user from the ground up. Learning to handle different files based on which userid is the owner needs to be 2nd nature for an administrator. In post #2 above, I mentioned Unix permissions.

    So .... with that said, you will save yourself hours, days, weeks, months of frustration if you learn about Unix file and directory permissions ASAP. Google "Ubuntu file permissions" to find the Ubuntu wiki page about those. Working through it would be a first step, but to really "get it", the best way I know is to create 3 new userids, 2 new groupids, open 3 terminals, su into each new userid - 1 window for each one, then play for about 45 minutes mixing and matching every possible permission you thank think of for files and directories in a play area. I struggled to really understand permissions for about a year before I finally sat down and figured them out. Since then, I've only needed to look up funky permissions to solidify my understanding for the setgroupid, sticky-bit. Pretty much all the other permissions are really easy to master and get used daily.

    Ok ... the short answer is to use sudoedit when you need to edit system files. System files are almost all of them under /etc/ and most places that are not in your HOME.
    There are other ways to do it, without sudoedit, but IMHO, it is a good habit to start sooner than later.

    A warning. You'll see other places saying to use sudo gedit /path/to/file. Don't to that. Sometimes using sudo with GUI programs can break your ability to use those same programs normally. sudo should only be used when necessary, not all the time and not whenever something doesn't work. It is easiest to say only use sudo for non-GUI programs. That is pretty safe and keeps most people out of trouble. You can use sudo -H gedit fairly safely. Same for other GUI tools, but really it should be avoided. NEVER run a web browser or GUI email program with sudo.

    sudo nano file is safe to use, if you can stand nano. I can't. It is safe because nano doesn't write config files automatically or without your expressed request. That's where most Gnome tools fail. They store settings without asking way too often.

    Have you learned about tab completion yet?

    One more thing. Every popular OS uses / for the directory separator, including Windows, OSX, Linux, BSD, Unix and variants of those. Only MS-Windows works with \. Your post above has a \etc\ ... which won't work.

  5. #15
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    Re: what i would like to do with ubuntu server - need pointers

    Quote Originally Posted by jwhiz56 View Post
    I also bought 3 books, 2 on server and 1 on workstation. I using them to help myself.
    Oh dear. I fear that you are making this way more complicated than it needs to be - for a home network. These books are either geared to the enterprise or are way outdated. "Using Samba" is an example of such a book. It's several inches thick and represents how samba was configured 15 years ago. Even Samba itself tells you to stay away from this book: https://www.samba.org/samba/docs/using_samba/toc.html

    Anyhoo, I would like to offer the following suggestions that may be useful in your path of discovery:

    [1] If you are following multiple sources for samba configuration you will likely end up with an incomprehensible mess. Luckily there is a factory fresh copy of the original smb.conf located here that you can use to restore yourself to the original setup: /usr/share/samba/smb.conf

    [2] The following diagnostic command is your friend:
    Code:
    testparm -s
    testparm will scan your smb.conf, compare it to the default settings ( which you do not have access to directly ) and display what affect it will have on how samba runs. It will catch many - but not all - errors you may have in your configuration.

    In several replies, I've been told to edit the file in \etc\…. and I use nano to do that and I get a blank edit panel with a message I don't have authorization.
    You need to slap a sudo in front of nano - for example:
    Code:
    sudo nano /etc/samba/smb.conf
    Last edited by Morbius1; 1 Week Ago at 11:06 PM.

  6. #16
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    Question Re: what i would like to do with ubuntu server - need pointers

    all,

    based on all the pointers so far, I have created my server installation. Ubuntu 18.04 is installed, updated, SMB installed, unzip installed, wsdd installed. Hardware wise, usb 3.0 PCI card installed, 8 drive disk enclosure plugged in/functional. I have attached a file showing the fstab entries I think I need and the smb.conf entries I think I need. I have some questions.

    1. in regards to the following fstab entry, /STORAGE is the sub-directory where the drive is to be mounted (I think). does the /585CEDA25CED7B60 (duplicating UUID per example) have to be the same as the UUID or can it be any (more descriptive) value?
    # 1TB HD
    UUID=585CEDA25CED7B60 /STORAGE/585CEDA25CED7B60 NTFS DEFAULTS 0 0

    2. do I need to make the directory /storage? (pretty sure I do), do I also need to make the remainder as part of that directory structure?
    3. do I need to take ownership of these directories?
    4. any other things I should know/do?

    here is the output of the blkid command:

    jwhiz56@zerkelserver:~$ sudo blkid
    /dev/sda2: UUID="53f4c033-fca8-4887-a544-a9e84b224e84" TYPE="ext4" PARTUUID="6840b843-bc52-45cf-8333-fb4a2885c922"
    /dev/loop0: TYPE="squashfs"
    /dev/loop1: TYPE="squashfs"
    /dev/sda1: PARTUUID="377eca71-e5b2-4e9d-9e28-ad8f928c4165"
    /dev/sdf1: LABEL="960gb spare ssd" UUID="3AF05EA8F05E6A61" TYPE="ntfs" PARTUUID="19a298c7-01"
    /dev/sdg1: LABEL="Windows" UUID="2A7045C07045938B" TYPE="ntfs" PARTUUID="881c2b75-1369-412c-905a-b9df10269d6c"
    /dev/sdh1: LABEL="DATA" UUID="585CEDA25CED7B60" TYPE="ntfs" PARTUUID="140b91dd-01"
    /dev/sdj1: LABEL="500GB spare" UUID="E46AA01E6A9FEB94" TYPE="ntfs" PARTUUID="b91a0656-01"
    /dev/sdi1: LABEL="1TB spare" UUID="F4D2F307D2F2CD3C" TYPE="ntfs" PARTLABEL="Basic data partition" PARTUUID="066813da-6360-40a6-a908-b74013eeb77d"
    /dev/sdk1: LABEL="500GB spare" UUID="406668E36668DB64" TYPE="ntfs" PARTUUID="307ece58-01"
    /dev/sdl1: LABEL="2tb sata" UUID="0C925C7D925C6CE8" TYPE="ntfs" PARTUUID="481c4239-01"
    /dev/sdm1: LABEL="2tb sata" UUID="16884D7E884D5D7D" TYPE="ntfs" PARTUUID="7034c302-01"
    Attached Files Attached Files

  7. #17
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    Question Re: what i would like to do with ubuntu server - need pointers

    I think i'm answering my own question, this is what I should do: (did this and it works. can see all 8 disks from my windows explorer)

    sudo mkdir -p /storage/disk1
    sudo mkdir -p /storage/disk2
    sudo mkdir -p /storage/disk3
    sudo mkdir -p /storage/disk4
    sudo mkdir -p /storage/disk5
    sudo mkdir -p /storage/disk6
    sudo mkdir -p /storage/disk7
    sudo mkdir -p /storage/disk8

    sudo chown jwhiz56 /storage/disk1
    sudo chown jwhiz56 /storage/disk2
    sudo chown jwhiz56 /storage/disk3
    sudo chown jwhiz56 /storage/disk4
    sudo chown jwhiz56 /storage/disk5
    sudo chown jwhiz56 /storage/disk6
    sudo chown jwhiz56 /storage/disk7
    sudo chown jwhiz56 /storage/disk8


    corresponding fstab file:

    # 1TB SSD
    UUID=53f4c033-fca8-4887-a544-a9e84b224e84 / ext4 defaults 0 0
    /swap.img none swap sw 0 0
    # 960GB SSD
    UUID=3AF05EA8F05E6A61 /storage/disk1 ntfs defaults 0 0
    # 500GB HD
    UUID=2A7045C07045938B /storage/disk2 ntfs defaults 0 0
    # 1TB HD
    UUID=585CEDA25CED7B60 /storage/disk3 ntfs defaults 0 0
    # 500GB HD
    UUID=E46AA01E6A9FEB94 /storage/disk4 ntfs defaults 0 0
    # 1TB HD
    UUID=F4D2F307D2F2CD3C /storage/disk5 ntfs defaults 0 0
    # 500GB HD
    UUID=406668E36668DB64 /storage/disk6 ntfs defaults 0 0
    # 2TB HD
    UUID=0C925C7D925C6CE8 /storage/disk7 ntfs defaults 0 0
    # 2TB HD
    UUID=16884D7E884D5D7D /storage/disk8 ntfs defaults 0 0


    /etc/samba/smb.conf file. lines to be added at the end.
    [disk1]
    path = /storage/disk1
    guest ok = yes
    read only = no
    force user = jwhiz56
    [disk2]
    path = /storage/disk2
    guest ok = yes
    read only = no
    force user = jwhiz56
    [disk3]
    path = /storage/disk3
    guest ok = yes
    read only = no
    force user = jwhiz56
    [disk4]
    path = /storage/disk4
    guest ok = yes
    read only = no
    force user = jwhiz56
    [disk5]
    path = /storage/disk5
    guest ok = yes
    read only = no
    force user = jwhiz56
    [disk6]
    path = /storage/disk6
    guest ok = yes
    read only = no
    force user = jwhiz56
    [disk7]
    path = /storage/disk7
    guest ok = yes
    read only = no
    force user = jwhiz56
    [disk8]
    path = /storage/disk8
    guest ok = yes
    read only = no
    force user = jwhiz56
    Last edited by jwhiz56; 1 Week Ago at 01:11 AM.

  8. #18
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    Re: what i would like to do with ubuntu server - need pointers

    chown doesn't work on NTFS.

  9. #19
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    Re: what i would like to do with ubuntu server - need pointers

    NTFS uses is attrib

    https://docs.microsoft.com/en-us/win...ommands/attrib

    not sure how you would use it in linux.
    Easy to understand Ubuntu manual with lots of pics: http://ubuntu-manual.org/
    Do i need antivirus/firewall in linux?
    Disk backup (works on newer PC): Clonezilla

  10. #20
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    Re: what i would like to do with ubuntu server - need pointers

    based on all the pointers so far, I have created my server installation. Ubuntu 18.04 is installed, updated, SMB installed, unzip installed, wsdd installed. Hardware wise, usb 3.0 PCI card installed, 8 drive disk enclosure plugged in/functional.
    ...
    ...
    I think i'm answering my own question, this is what I should do: (did this and it works. can see all 8 disks from my windows explorer)
    A minor observation that does not need to be fixed: There is no need to chown a mount point before something is mounted to it. The mounted partition does not inherit the permissions of the mount point. In this case the fstab entry will make it owned by root but make it world writeable so there really isn't anything to fix.

    I do have a request -- a plea really -- if you found the wsdd process works as advertised you might consider adding a "affects me too" to the list at launchpad ( https://bugs.launchpad.net/ubuntu/+s...a/+bug/1831441 ). I don't know if they will do anything with just 2 votes and this really needs to be done by default at install time.
    Last edited by Morbius1; 1 Week Ago at 01:10 PM.

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