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Thread: Scripts to partially automate Ubuntu 18.04 on ZFS installation

  1. #1
    Join Date
    Jan 2017
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    Scripts to partially automate Ubuntu 18.04 on ZFS installation

    Have some fairly rudimentary scripts I threw together while installing Ubuntu 18.04 on ZFS using a live ISO flash drive.

    This definitely makes things easier for me and MUCH faster than going step-by-step. But make sure you understand what each command does and verify that it's what you want if you're going to try it.

    I recommend you ONLY use it on a system with just ONE DRIVE you're going to dedicate to Ubuntu unless you really know what you're doing - and even then, you'll have to modify it quite a bit.

    Also, this is completely unsupported by Canonical. According to them:

    ZFS
    ZFS support was added to Ubuntu Wily 15.10 as a technology preview and comes fully supported in Ubuntu Xenial 16.04. Note that ZFS is only supported on 64 bit architectures. Also note that ZFS is only supported for data storage, not the root filesystem.

    However, my belief is that zfs snapshots are incredibly helpful for management of root filesystems. I do not work for, nor am I affiliated with, Canonical in any way.

    YOU HAVE BEEN WARNED!


    Adapted from this how-to:
    https://github.com/zfsonlinux/zfs/wi...04-Root-on-ZFS

    If you want more granular detail or a LUKS installation, or a BIOS installation rather than EFI, you can check there and do it step by step.

    Or you can just install it without encryption using EFI by copying my scripts here and running them.

    Sound good? OK! Let's get started -


    Download live ISO for desktop here:
    https://www.ubuntu.com/download/desktop


    Note: Will not work with 'live server' ISO.


    Instructions:


    Boot ISO -

    select try ubuntu

    select live user


    commands - run:


    ctrl-alt-t [to open terminal]

    Code:
    passwd [enter passwd for ubuntu user]
    sudo su root
    apt install -y openssh-server
    ip addr
    From another computer, log into the system running the live ISO:

    Code:
    ssh ubuntu@[ip addr]
    sudo su root


    Copy this script and run from ssh terminal --- there's a few things you'll likely have to change in the script:

    1) paste it into nano and use ctrl-\ to find-and-replace your boot drive assignment after identifying it with lsblk.
    2) change /etc/netplan/controllername.yaml to reflect your device name desired network settings

    Code:
    
    #!/bin/bash
    # init
    function pause(){
       read -p "$*"
    }
     
    # ...
    # call it
    pause 'NOTE: Will pause occasionally to verify stuff. If you're awake, press [Enter] key to continue or CTRL-C to abort and re-tool the rest of the script'
    # ...
    add-apt-repository universe
    apt update
    apt install -y openssh-server zfs-initramfs gdisk debootstrap
    
    
    #This clears the disk 
    pause 'Press any key to clean /dev/sda - CTRL-C to abort'
    sgdisk --zap-all /dev/sda
    apt install zfs-initramfs gdisk debootstrap
    echo 'create efi partition'
    sgdisk     -n3:1M:+512M -t3:EF00 /dev/sda
    echo 'prep empty space for zfs'
    sgdisk     -n1:0:0      -t1:BF01 /dev/sda
    
    
    zpool create -f -o ashift=12 \
          -O atime=off -O canmount=off -O compression=lz4 -O normalization=formD \
          -O xattr=sa -O mountpoint=/ -R /mnt \
          rpool /dev/sda1
    
    
    zfs create -o canmount=off -o mountpoint=none rpool/ROOT
    zfs create -o canmount=noauto -o mountpoint=/ rpool/ROOT/ubuntu
    zfs mount rpool/ROOT/ubuntu
    
    
    zfs create                 -o setuid=off              rpool/home
    zfs create -o mountpoint=/root                        rpool/home/root
    zfs create -o canmount=off -o setuid=off  -o exec=off rpool/var
    zfs create -o com.sun:auto-snapshot=false             rpool/var/cache
    zfs create -o acltype=posixacl -o xattr=sa            rpool/var/log
    zfs create                                            rpool/var/spool
    zfs create -o com.sun:auto-snapshot=false -o exec=on  rpool/var/tmp
    
    
    #only necessary if doing by hand:
    lsblk
    zpool list
    zfs list
    pause 'Verify correct - press key to continue, CTRL-C to abort'
    chmod 1777 /mnt/var/tmp
    debootstrap bionic /mnt
    zfs set devices=off rpool
    
    
    cat >> /mnt/etc/netplan/ens192.yaml << EOF
    
    
    network:
     version: 2
     renderer: networkd
     ethernets:
       ens192:
         dhcp4: no
         dhcp6: no
         addresses: [192.168.1.42/24]
         gateway4: 192.168.1.1
         nameservers:
           addresses: [192.168.1.2,192.168.1.3]
    EOF
    
    
    cat /mnt/etc/netplan/ens192.yaml
    
    
    pause 'Verify correct - press key to continue, CTRL-C to abort'
    
    
    cat > /mnt/etc/apt/sources.list < EOF
    
    
    deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic main universe
    deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic main universe
    
    
    deb http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-security main universe
    deb-src http://security.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-security main universe
    
    
    deb http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-updates main universe
    deb-src http://archive.ubuntu.com/ubuntu bionic-updates main universe
    EOF
    
    
    cat /mnt/etc/apt/sources.list
    
    
    pause 'Verify correct - press key to continue, CTRL-C to abort'
    
    
    mount --rbind /dev  /mnt/dev
    mount --rbind /proc /mnt/proc
    mount --rbind /sys  /mnt/sys
    chroot /mnt /bin/bash --login
    
    
    ---- end first part of script
    You're now in chroot so you can't just run one script all the way through -
    Manually run:

    Code:
    apt update && apt install -y nano
    Then copy and paste this like you did in the first part - don't forget to replace your drive assignment first to the drive you used in the previous script:


    Code:
    script part two, -------------
    
    
    
    
    #!/bin/bash
    # init
    function pause(){
       read -p "$*"
    }
     
    
    
    
    
    ln -s /proc/self/mounts /etc/mtab
    #apt update
    apt upgrade -y
    apt install -y locales
    
    
    #interactive:
    #dpkg-reconfigure locales 
    #non-interactive:
    LANG=en_US.UTF-8 locale-gen --purge en_US.UTF-8
    
    
    #Revisit this - not working properly 0 non-interactive:
    #echo "America/Los_Angeles" > /etc/timezone
    #dpkg-reconfigure -f noninteractive tzdata 
    #interactive:
    dpkg-reconfigure tzdata 
    
    
    # install zfs in chroot environment (complete in these steps)
    apt install -y --no-install-recommends linux-image-generic
    apt install -y zfs-initramfs dosfstools open-vm-tools
    
    
    lsblk
    
    
    pause 'going to make partition 3  EFI partition and install grub -- press key'
    
    
    mkdosfs -F 32 -n EFI /dev/sda3
    mkdir /boot/efi
    echo PARTUUID=$(blkid -s PARTUUID -o value /dev/sdb3) /boot/efi vfat nofail,x-systemd.device-timeout=1 0 1 >> /etc/fstab
    
    
    mount /boot/efi
    cat /proc/mounts | grep /dev/sda3
    
    
    pause 'is /dev/sda3 mounted to /boot/efi? Press a key...'
    
    
    apt install -y grub-efi-amd64
    
    
    addgroup --system lpadmin
    addgroup --system sambashare
    addgroup sudo
    useradd local
    passwd local
    passwd
    hostname ubuntuzfs
    
    
    
    
    echo '%sudo ALL=ALL(ALL)' > /etc/sudoers.d/sudo
    echo 'local ALL=ALL(ALL)' > /etc/sudoers.d/local
    
    
    
    
    zfs set mountpoint=legacy rpool/var/log
    zfs set mountpoint=legacy rpool/var/tmp
    cat >> /etc/fstab << EOF
    rpool/var/log /var/log zfs defaults 0 0
    rpool/var/tmp /var/tmp zfs defaults 0 0
    EOF
    cat /etc/fstab
    pause 'does /etc/fstab look okay? Press key...'
    
    
    grub-probe / 
    # should return: zfs
    pause 'does it return "zfs"??? Press a key...'
    update-initramfs -c -k all
    
    
    grub-install --target=x86_64-efi --efi-directory=/boot/efi \
          --bootloader-id=ubuntu --recheck --no-floppy
    
    
    ls /boot/grub/*/zfs.mod
    pause 'should return: /boot/grub/x86_64-efi/zfs.mod -- almost done!  Press a key...'
    
    
    pause 'want to install virtualization and container software?? if so, press a key - if not, ctrl-C'
    
    
    apt install -y openssh-server putty-tools lxc lxd ifupdown lxctl lxc-templates python3-dev seccomp python-gnutls gnutls-bin virt-manager virt-top virtinst  libvirt-daemon* libvirt-bin libvirt-clients gparted ssh-askpass git guestfsd libguestfs-zfs zfs-fuse
    
    
    ---- end script 2




    5.3 Optional (but highly recommended): Make debugging GRUB easier:


    nano /etc/default/grub

    #Comment out: GRUB_HIDDEN_TIMEOUT=0
    #Remove quiet and splash from: GRUB_CMDLINE_LINUX_DEFAULT
    #Uncomment: GRUB_TERMINAL=console
    #Save and quit.


    #Update the boot configuration and install grub:

    Code:
    update-grub
    #Take your first snapshot:

    Code:
    zfs snapshot rpool/ROOT/ubuntu@install
    #Verify that the ZFS module is installed:

    Code:
    ls /boot/grub/*/zfs.mod
    #should return: /boot/grub/x86_64-efi/zfs.mod


    Note: You do NOT want to reboot before that last command gives you the correct result. If it doesn't, you're likely going to reboot to brick. If there's a problem, be sure to go back over the code and try and find anything that went wrong and do it again, or just run the whole thing over again (will likely have to reboot and clear drive again if you're all the way in chroot).


    ---- still need to do the below steps before you can cleanly reboot ----


    #Exit chroot and umount zfs stuff, export rpool

    Code:
    exit 
    mount | grep -v zfs | tac | awk '/\/mnt/ {print $3}' | xargs -i{} umount -lf {}
    zpool export -f rpool

    reboot


    Enjoy your ZFS-on-root Ubuntu 18.04!

    What do you think, is there anything you recommend I should change?
    Last edited by averyfreeman; July 14th, 2018 at 07:36 PM. Reason: Language explaining method is unsupported

  2. #2
    Join Date
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    Re: Scripts to partially automate Ubuntu 18.04 on ZFS installation

    A warning would be helpful. ZFS should be used for data, not the OS if stability is the primary goal or it is a production system.

    https://wiki.ubuntu.com/Kernel/Reference/ZFS says:
    ZFS
    ZFS support was added to Ubuntu Wily 15.10 as a technology preview and comes fully supported in Ubuntu Xenial 16.04. Note that ZFS is only supported on 64 bit architectures. Also note that ZFS is only supported for data storage, not the root filesystem.

  3. #3
    Join Date
    Jan 2017
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    Re: Scripts to partially automate Ubuntu 18.04 on ZFS installation

    Very true! It is definitely not supported for root filesystems, although it is arguably very helpful to have for snapshots - still looking for a replacement for beadm like Solaris. I will use your language if you don't mind.

  4. #4
    Join Date
    Jul 2018
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    Re: Scripts to partially automate Ubuntu 18.04 on ZFS installation

    I have two other methods for 18.04 ZFS on Root install:
    1) Manual Method -- https://github.com/zfsonlinux/pkg-zf...-GUI-installer
    2) Scripted Method -- https://github.com/ghfields/rpooler

    The scripted version is more feature rich and foolproof.

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