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Thread: Backup (save) same file periodically

  1. #1
    Join Date
    Jul 2012

    Backup (save) same file periodically

    I am saving a stream to my HDD.
    I'd like to copy the file periodically into a subfolder backup such that the older versions of the the file are not deleted.

    Simply put
    1. Assume the original file is somefolder/data
    2. The first backup should be somefolder/backup/data.1
    3. The second backup should be somefolder/backup/data.2
    4. This process should continue in an interval of t minutes/seconds

    How do I go about doing this?

  2. #2
    Join Date
    Feb 2013

    Re: Backup (save) same file periodically

    @elang, I'm not a superb shell scripter but I think that you can use the date command to add an extension to the file name data.hhmmss
    imbed the command into a for or while loop imcremented by whatever time you determine is required.

    data.`date +"%H%M%S"`
    possible start with man time
    Last edited by pfeiffep; May 5th, 2014 at 11:10 PM. Reason: add syntax
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    Regards, Pete

  3. #3
    Join Date
    Sep 2008
    Ubuntu 14.04 Trusty Tahr

    Re: Backup (save) same file periodically

    There's a Time Machine-ish thingie for Linux called Simple Backup in the repos. It's configurable so as to provide both full and incremental (delta) backups. Unless you have talent and time, this is the way I would go. Custom stuff is unreasonably time consuming to create, even for "simple" projects -- which often turn out not to be.
    Last edited by whitesmith; May 5th, 2014 at 11:03 PM.
    In working with *nix...There be dragons. Newcomers: I recommend reading Linux is Not Windows ( and The Linux Command Line ( before beginning your quest for a better OS.

  4. #4
    Join Date
    Jul 2005
    I think I'm here! Maybe?

    Re: Backup (save) same file periodically

    You could look at rsync for this, and even run it as a cron job at whatever regular interval you set.

    See man rsync for all details, but here's a copy of the relevant part.
    -b, --backup
    With this option, preexisting destination files are renamed as each file is transferred or deleted.
    You can control where the backup file goes and what (if any) suffix gets appended using the
    --backup-dir and --suffix options.

    Note that if you don’t specify --backup-dir, (1) the --omit-dir-times option will be implied, and (2)
    if --delete is also in effect (without --delete-excluded), rsync will add a "protect" filter-rule for
    the backup suffix to the end of all your existing excludes (e.g. -f "P *~"). This will prevent previ‐
    ously backed-up files from being deleted. Note that if you are supplying your own filter rules, you
    may need to manually insert your own exclude/protect rule somewhere higher up in the list so that it
    has a high enough priority to be effective (e.g., if your rules specify a trailing inclusion/exclusion
    of ’*’, the auto-added rule would never be reached).

    In combination with the --backup option, this tells rsync to store all backups in the specified direc‐
    tory on the receiving side. This can be used for incremental backups. You can additionally specify a
    backup suffix using the --suffix option (otherwise the files backed up in the specified directory will
    keep their original filenames).

    Note that if you specify a relative path, the backup directory will be relative to the destination
    directory, so you probably want to specify either an absolute path or a path that starts with "../".
    If an rsync daemon is the receiver, the backup dir cannot go outside the module’s path hierarchy, so
    take extra care not to delete it or copy into it.

    This option allows you to override the default backup suffix used with the --backup (-b) option. The
    default suffix is a ~ if no --backup-dir was specified, otherwise it is an empty string.
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  5. #5
    Join Date
    Apr 2012

    Re: Backup (save) same file periodically

    ... at its very simplest, you could use cp with the --backup=numbered option

    $ while : ; do cp -vt ./backup/ --backup=numbered -- file; sleep 5; done
    `file' -> `./backup/file'
    `file' -> `./backup/file' (backup: `./backup/file.~1~')
    `file' -> `./backup/file' (backup: `./backup/file.~2~')
    `file' -> `./backup/file' (backup: `./backup/file.~3~')
    `file' -> `./backup/file' (backup: `./backup/file.~4~')
    `file' -> `./backup/file' (backup: `./backup/file.~5~')
    The only slight wrinkle is that the newest copy is always called 'file' i.e.
    $ ls -lt --time-style '+%X' ./backup/
    total 24
    -rw-rw-r-- 1 user user 24 06:57:05 PM file
    -rw-rw-r-- 1 user user 24 06:57:00 PM file.~5~
    -rw-rw-r-- 1 user user 24 06:56:55 PM file.~4~
    -rw-rw-r-- 1 user user 24 06:56:50 PM file.~3~
    -rw-rw-r-- 1 user user 24 06:56:45 PM file.~2~
    -rw-rw-r-- 1 user user 24 06:56:40 PM file.~1~

  6. #6
    Join Date
    Apr 2007

    Re: Backup (save) same file periodically

    I have a script for incremental backups using rsync that looks like the following. The script makes a snapshot, using hard links to a previous backup for files that were not changed, and copies when the file was changed. Fast and space efficient. Use cron to have such a script automatically executed at regular times.

    function backupinc {
    	if [ -d $1 ] 
    		if [ -d $2 ]
    			rsync -av --delete --link-dest="$2" "$1" "$2-new"
    			mv "$2" "$2-$date"; mv "$2-new" "$2"
    			echo "Destination $2 not available"
    		echo "Source $1 not available"
    date=$(date "+%Y-%m-%dT%H:%M:%S")
    backupinc "/home/vanadium/Documents/" "/media/vanadium/Data/bk/Documents"

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