Some of the working Huawei 3g modems have been reported to be failing to work on latest kernels even though the usb_modeswitch and related packages seem to have support for them. So it may be a bug in the updates that might be causing this.
Please compare the versions of these in your live and installed sessions -
And in your installed system (after a fresh reboot), plug in the modem > wait for about 20-30 seconds, then post back the outputs of -
dpkg -l | grep usb-modeswitch
modinfo option | grep version
While posting the outputs, please use 'Code' tags. It preserves the output's formatting and makes the post cleaner, compact and more readable. To see a quick 'HowTo' with screenshots, please follow the "Using Code Tags" link in my signature.
dmesg | tail -40