achilles316; Hi !
I will take a stab at trying to answer your questions.
1. Not knowing what version or distro you are running the response is equally ambiguous. Look about for a "System Settings" and poke about some more for "removable media" insure the appropriate boxes are checked.
location varies depending on the version, the distribution and the desktop installed.
1a, Never ever never unplug an external device with out "safely removing" //else file system damage will result at some level, depending on what is going on, perhaps disastrous. Happy with your setting ? then -> plug in the device. My preference to see if the system is aware of the external device is -> from desk top: key combo ctl+alt+t yields a terminal; In this terminal type:
if the device is recognized there is one other entry in that output than are internal hard disk(s) in the machine.
2, extras //Software Center and search on ubuntu-restricted-extras, else: terminal:
3. clock:What desk top ya running ? LXDE ? Will have to get back with ya on that - I am booted into xfce presently.
sudo apt-get install ubuntu-restricted-extras
and finally 4.
Go to the first post in your thread. Click on "Edit Post". Now click on the orange "Go Advanced" button. In the advanced editor change the prefix to "SOLVED". Now click on the orange "Save Changes" button.
let us know how you get on and how else we can help