One way to do this would be to define mount points for each device in /etc/fstab following the instructions given in https://help.ubuntu.com/community/Mo...dowsPartitions. You can specify "ro" in the list of options which forces the mount to be read-only.
You could also mount a device read-only from the command line with the "mount" command. Usually if you plug in a USB device, it gets assigned the next available drive letter in the /dev/sd[a-z] scheme. If you have one harddrive in the computer, it will be referred to as /dev/sda. If you plug in an external device, it should be assigned /dev/sdb. Each of the partitions on the device are named separately like /dev/sda1 or /dev/sdb3.
Suppose your computer has one internal hard drive. When you plug in the device, it will be assigned /dev/sdb. Let's also assume it has just one partition, /dev/sdb1.
These days most everything is mounted under /media, so lets create a "mount point" for the device (really just an empty directory) called /media/Music.
Now if you want to mount the device you plugged in to that location with read-only restrictions, you can use the command:
sudo mkdir /media/Music
sudo mount -o ro /dev/sdb1 /media/Music
Another possible trick would be to remove write-permissions from the mount point with
sudo chmod a-w /media/Music
Update: There's a better approach for this method in the documentation I linked to above:
A "umask" is a set of three "octal" (base-8) digits that are used to generate the default permissions on files and directories. The umask is subtracted from the number 777 which represents full permissions for user, group, and others. That results in permissions of 555, which is read and list/execute for everyone and no write privileges.
Option 1 - for mounting read-only access. For example, this would be suitable for mounting your Windows C:\ partition if you need to access it. Modify the line below with your UUID and mountpoint:
UUID=519CB82E5888AD0F /media/Data ntfs defaults,umask=222 0 0
This is an alternative to using "ro" in the list of options. I don't think one is intrinsically better than the other.