3 easy commands: edit, compile, run.
(You may replace gedit with your editor of choice.) Write your code in the editor, save it, then
Boom. It's a similar process for C++ (although I would suggest you pick one and stick with it for a while; C and C++ are quite different).
gcc -std=c99 -Wall -Wextra -pedantic file.c
The -std=c99 -Wall -Wextra -pedantic bit is strictly speaking not necessary. Those flags just tell gcc what dialect of C to compile (C99, in this example) and turn on a bunch of warnings that will probably help you avoid some dumb mistakes when getting started. You can alias that whole bit to something shorter; just add the following line to ~/.bash_profile and use "cc file.c" instead:
Just a few tips. Have fun.
alias cc="gcc -std=c99 -Wall -Wextra -pedantic"