Re: Broke my graphics
From what I can see your nVidia chipset is supported by nVidia driver version 310.40. So if you read the README file which comes with that and follow the instructions you should be good to go (hopefully!). If the driver gives the possibilities for you to switch between your intel graphics (Intel driver is supported by the Linux kernel) and the new nVidia driver once installed, I don't know. So if you want to test it, make a full backup of your system, then after that you can try it out if it works!
I would also like to inform about that the open source nVidia driver (Optimus nouveau wiki on the open source driver) does not yet support switching between the nVidia and Intel graphics. Linus Torvalds himself expressed last year how he felt about nVidia and the problem with supporting Optimus in the Linux kernel, and it was not positive. So there will probably not be much happening there for a while, so unless the non-free nVidia driver works, you are stuck using the Intel driver only without switching.
The downside of downloading and installing the nVidia driver without adding a repository for it, is that the driver will break each time your Ubuntu system makes a minor upgrade to your Linux kernel, so either you control and make sure that no upgrades are being done to your Linux kernel, or you add a repository for the nVidia kernel, and install the driver from the Ubuntu Software Center, giving the nVidia driver a possibility to receive new updates by automatic and having that working (hopefully) all the time as the new Ubuntu Linux kernel are getting upgraded as time moves forward. So I would recommend an nVidia repository for it for less pain and hassle.
Not sure if this can help you in any way, but hopefully this new nVidia driver can help you out in this!
Debian 8.0 "Jessie"
HP laptop (15-ab064no-Nordic)
Linux user since 1999.