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Thread: Howto make USB boot drives

  1. #961
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    Ubuntu 18.04 Bionic Beaver

    Re: Howto make USB boot drives

    The Phoronix Benchmarks made me interested: https://www.phoronix.com/scan.php?pa...20-linux&num=1. I am trying it on a Live USB made using baliniaEtcher. Clear looks like Ubuntu on the outside, but things look different on the inside. It seems smooth and fast , but maybe "better the devil you know than the devil you don't know"
    Page that explains Ventoy Persistence: https://www.ostechnix.com/create-per...#comment-78804. I built a 6GB persistence.img file, no 4GB limit. USB won't boot on my HP.

  2. #962
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    Re: Howto make USB boot drives

    Easy way to get installed Ubuntu 20.04 LTS that boots in UEFI and BIOS

    This is the easy way for you to get an installed Ubuntu system, that boots both in UEFI and BIOS mode, and you can use it in several cases. However,

    - if you want to learn how to do it, or
    - if you want to be sure of the content (and don't rely on me), or
    - if you want hibernation, or
    - if you want an encrypted disk (LVM with LUKS encryption),

    then you must do it yourself. (In the encrypted disk case, you must create the passphrase yourself during the installation.)

    Using a method similar to what is described by C.S.Cameron I have created

    - a compressed image file of
    - an installed system of Ubuntu 20.04 LTS
    - that can boot both in UEFI mode and BIOS mode (alias CSM alias legacy mode).

    This compressed image file expands to 15.7 GB, so it fits into drives with size at least 16 GB. It is easy to extract and clone it to an external drive

    - with mkusb (only one step),
    - but you can use any
    . extraction tool,
    . plus cloning tool,
    . plus a tool to fix the gpt partition table gpt-fix. You may have problems in Windows to find such a tool, and in several cases you can skip it, and the drive will work anyway.

    After extraction, cloning and fixing, it is a good idea to expand the root partition, where Ubuntu is installed in order to use the whole drive, when you are using a big drive ( > 16 GB ).

    There are more details about this image file

    dd_unb_ubuntu-20.04_15GB_2020-06-26.img.xz

    at the following links,

    help.ubuntu.com/community/Installation/UEFI-and-BIOS

    help.ubuntu.com/community/Installation/UEFI-and-BIOS/stable-alternative - details of the method to create the system

    Finally, the installed system has a password, and you are encouraged to change it,

    Password: changeme
    Attached Images Attached Images
    Last edited by sudodus; June 27th, 2020 at 03:33 PM. Reason: added link - details of the method ...; hibernation ...

  3. #963
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    Re: Howto make USB boot drives

    I tried this and am impressed.
    Smaller to download than the Ubuntu ISO but contains a Full 20.04 install.
    Easy and quick to flash to USB disk from Windows or Linux. I used Rufus.
    Simple to customize and upgrade.
    Just like having a desktop on a thumbdrive or SD card.
    Good job sudodus

  4. #964
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    Re: Howto make USB boot drives

    Easy way to get installed Ubuntu 20.04 LTS that boots in UEFI and BIOS - continued

    I have a computer with an nvidia card, and installed the nvidia proprietary driver, that was recommended and selected automatically by Ubuntu. It works well in that computer, I could see that VLC uses vdpau acceleration (using the graphics chip to play video).

    Then I moved the drive with the installed Ubuntu 20.04 LTS system to other computers (laptops), that have no nvidia card, and the graphics work as before, the correct free drivers are selected and work as they should.

    So in this way, this installed system is more portable than a [persistent] live system, where you cannot install an nvidia proprietary driver.

    Finally, please notice that you, the end user, must install the proprietary driver (if you want it). Due to the licensing rules it must not be included in the compressed image file, and the same applies to the package ubuntu-restricted-extras.
    Last edited by sudodus; June 28th, 2020 at 07:54 AM. Reason: and the same applies to the package ubuntu-restricted-extras

  5. #965
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    Re: Howto make USB boot drives

    mkusb version 12.5.8

    - mkusb 12.5.8
    . dus-wipe: added p_zentest, wf_prep, wf_cleanup to use watch-flush

    Improvement in version 12.5.8

    The program watch-flush is used also when wiping the whole device. This keeps the user informed about the progress and eta (estimated time until the wiping is finished).



    Unstable 1: You get/update this new version of mkusb from the unstable PPA via the following commands

    Code:
    sudo add-apt-repository universe     # this line only for standard Ubuntu
    
    sudo add-apt-repository ppa:mkusb/unstable
    sudo apt update
    sudo apt install mkusb           # to install
    # sudo apt full-upgrade          # upgrade to current version (with all other upgrades), only for installed systems
    
    sudo apt install mkusb guidus dus mkusb-common  # to upgrade all mkusb basic components including dus
    
    sudo apt install usb-pack-efi    # for persistent live drives that work in UEFI and BIOS mode with 32-bit iso files
    You get only the version dus (alone or with guidus) via one of the following commands (if you don't care about mkusb-11, mkusb-nox, mkusb-bas)

    Code:
    sudo apt install dus
    sudo apt install guidus
    You get only the version mkusb-plug via [the update command and] the following command,

    Code:
    sudo apt update
    sudo apt install mkusb-plug
    Alternative way to get mkusb: There are tarballs at

    - help.ubuntu.com/community/mkusb/gui/tarball with only dus and guidus (mkusb version 12),

    - help.ubuntu.com/community/mkusb/plug with only mkusb-plug.



    Stable: mkusb version 12.5.8 is in the stable PPA. The policy is to test mkusb for a long time and in several environments before it is uploaded to the stable PPA (unless there are minor tweaks or bug-fixes).

    You get/update this version via the following commands

    Code:
    sudo add-apt-repository universe      # this line only for standard Ubuntu
    
    sudo add-apt-repository ppa:mkusb/ppa
    sudo apt update
    sudo apt install mkusb            # to install
    # sudo apt full-upgrade           # upgrade to current version (with all other upgrades), only for installed systems
    
    sudo apt install usb-pack-efi     # for persistent live drives that work in UEFI and BIOS mode with 32-bit iso files
    You get only the version dus (alone or with guidus) via one of the following commands (if you don't care about mkusb-11, mkusb-nox, mkusb-bas)

    Code:
    sudo apt install dus
    sudo apt install guidus
    You get only the version mkusb-plug via [the update command and] the following command,

    Code:
    sudo apt update
    sudo apt install mkusb-plug
    Usually there is drive space enough to install all the following mkusb packages explicitly:

    Code:
    sudo apt update
    sudo apt install mkusb guidus mkusb-plug usb-pack-efi

    Please notice that if you have already installed mkusb-plug or dus/guidus from a tarball, you had better remove that version when you install via PPA. The advantage with the PPA version is that it gets updated/upgraded automatically along with other program packages that are installed from the Ubuntu repositories.
    Last edited by sudodus; 2 Weeks Ago at 05:19 PM. Reason: mkusb version 12.5.8 is in the stable PPA

  6. #966
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    Re: Howto make USB boot drives

    exelente

  7. #967
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    Re: Howto make USB boot drives

    There is a bug in the Groovy iso files, that affects booting from iso files. In many PC computers, it has been impossible to boot from USB drives with cloned live systems. There is a bug-fix, that makes it work again, at least in some computers. See these links,

    - Re: groovy gorilla installer crashes, post #22
    - Launchpad bug report #1886148 - failure to boot groovy daily



    Persistence by mkusb-dus is also affected. Persistent live systems of Ubuntu family flavours with these new Groovy iso files need the 'upefi' setting - usb-pack-efi - in order to work. I will wait a while before modifying mkusb, because I expect more changes until this bug is completely fixed.



    For isotesting other features and program packages you can create USB drives with grub-n-iso systems according to the following link. Such systems seem to work both live-only and persistent live, they are not affected by this bug.

    - help.ubuntu.com/community/Installation/iso2usb/isoboot

  8. #968
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    Re: Howto make USB boot drives

    BIOS/UEFI Template Broken?
    Re dd_grub-boot-template-for-uefi-n-bios.img.xz

    Cloned template to disk using Rufus, Etcher, etc, in Windows.

    Boot gives: Error no such partition / ... / GRUB rescue

    Install GRUB: sudo mount /dev/sdx2 /mnt , sudo grub-install --boot-directory=/mnt/boot /dev/sdx

    Boots to GRUB menu in Bios mode, not in UEFI mode

    Adding NTFS partition with ubuntu.iso boots in Bios mode, not in UEFI mode


    Installed template to disk using mkusb.

    Boots to GRUB menu in Bios mode, not in UEFI mode.

    Install GRUB: sudo mount /dev/sdx2 /mnt , sudo grub-install --boot-directory=/mnt/boot /dev/sdx

    Boots to GRUB menu in Bios mode and in UEFI mode.

    Created .img file of modified USB using disks.

    Installed new image file to USB using Rufus in Windows.

    It boots to GRUB menu in Bios mode and in UEFI mode.

    Added NTFS partition and ubuntu.iso file, boots to Ubuntu in Bios mode and in UEFI mode.

    Am I doing something wrong? If not please fix bootloader in template.
    it is a great tool that can be used in Linux and Windows.

  9. #969
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    Re: Howto make USB boot drives

    @C.S.Cameron,

    1. Have you checked with

    Code:
    <<<'666fa434dda8de3c6e9ddde83f85f197  dd_grub-boot-template-for-uefi-n-bios.img.xz' md5sum -c
    in the directory, where you have the template file? I checked now with the file in my computer and the uploaded file at phillw.net, and they match that md5sum. This template file is dated June 4 10:05 (2020).

    2. Did you forget to extract from compression before cloning into a USB drive in Windows or with mkusb-plug? Only mkusb-dus and Rufus + 7zip (or another compressing/extracting tool) will do unless you extract as a separate step.

    3. Or is the USB drive tired and not quite reliable?

    4. If the template matches the md5sum, and you extracted & cloned correctly, you have found a bug in the original template, that it might not work in some computer(s). Please describe the computer: Brand name and model. If I understand correctly, you have problems to boot in UEFI mode. I have not seen any such problems with this template, so I need your help to debug it.



    I double-checked in a Dell Precision M4800 and a Lenovo V130 right now: in BIOS mode and in UEFI mode (with and without secure boot), and it boots to the grub menu in all these cases.
    Last edited by sudodus; 1 Week Ago at 04:49 PM. Reason: added 'Or is the USB drive tired any not quite reliable?'

  10. #970
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    Re: Howto make USB boot drives

    MD5SUM's match

    Dates match: June 4 10:05 (2020).

    Ubuntu 20.04 Install:

    Zero'd Kingston Data Traveler 4GB USB2, (~2007), installed .img.xz on Acer, (BIOS), using Disks.
    Kingston Data Traveler 4GB USB2, (~2007), installed .img on Acer, (BIOS), using Disks.
    Booted to menu with BIOS boot on Acer.
    Booted to menu with BIOS boot on HP.
    Booted to menu with UEFI boot on GigaByte.

    SanDisk Cruzer Fit 16GB USB2, installed .img.xz on Acer, (BIOS), using Disks
    SanDisk Cruzer Fit 16GB USB2, installed .img on Acer, (BIOS), using Disks
    Booted to menu with BIOS boot on Acer.
    Booted to menu with BIOS boot on HP.
    Booted to menu with UEFI boot on GigaByte.

    Kingston Data Traveler 4GB USB2, installed .img.xz on Acer, (BIOS), using mkusb
    Kingston Data Traveler 4GB USB2, installed .img on Acer, (BIOS), using mkusb
    Booted to menu with BIOS boot on Acer.
    Booted to menu with BIOS boot on HP.
    Booted to menu with UEFI boot on GigaByte.

    SanDisk Cruzer Fit 16GB USB2, installed .img.xz on Acer, (BIOS), using mkusb
    SanDisk Cruzer Fit 16GB USB2, installed .img on Acer, (BIOS), using mkusb
    Booted to menu with BIOS boot on Acer.
    Booted to menu with BIOS boot on HP.
    Booted to menu with UEFI boot on GigaByte.

    Windows 10 Install:

    Kingston Data Traveler 4GB USB2, installed .img.xz on HP, (BIOS), using Rufus
    Kingston Data Traveler 4GB USB2, installed .img on HP, (BIOS), using Rufus
    Boot gave: Error no such partition / Entering rescue mode... / GRUB rescue> on Acer.
    Boot gave: Error no such partition / Entering rescue mode... / GRUB rescue> on HP.
    Boot gave: Error no such partition / Entering rescue mode... / GRUB rescue> on GigaByte.

    SanDisk Cruzer Fit 16GB USB2, installed .img.xz on HP, (BIOS), using Rufus
    SanDisk Cruzer Fit 16GB USB2, installed .img on HP, (BIOS), using Rufus
    Boot gave: Error no such partition / Entering rescue mode... / GRUB rescue> on Acer.
    Boot gave: Error no such partition / Entering rescue mode... / GRUB rescue> on HP.
    Boot gave: Error no such partition / Entering rescue mode... / GRUB rescue> on GigaByte.

    Kingston Data Traveler 4GB USB2, installed .img.xz on HP, (BIOS), using Etcher
    Kingston Data Traveler 4GB USB2, installed .img on HP, (BIOS), using Etcher
    Boot gave: Error no such partition / Entering rescue mode... / GRUB rescue> on Acer.
    Boot gave: Error no such partition / Entering rescue mode... / GRUB rescue> on HP.
    Boot gave: Error no such partition / Entering rescue mode... / GRUB rescue> on GigaByte.

    SanDisk Cruzer Fit 16GB USB2, installed .img.xz on HP, (BIOS), using Etcher
    SanDisk Cruzer Fit 16GB USB2, installed .img on HP, (BIOS), using Etcher
    Boot gave: Error no such partition / Entering rescue mode... / GRUB rescue> on Acer.
    Boot gave: Error no such partition / Entering rescue mode... / GRUB rescue> on HP.
    Boot gave: Error no such partition / Entering rescue mode... / GRUB rescue> on GigaByte.

    Kingston Data Traveler 4GB USB2, installed .img.xz on GigaByte, (UEFI), using Rufus
    Kingston Data Traveler 4GB USB2, installed .img on GigaByte, (UEFI), using Rufus
    Boot gave: Error no such partition / Entering rescue mode... / GRUB rescue> on Acer.
    Boot gave: Error no such partition / Entering rescue mode... / GRUB rescue> on HP.
    Boot gave: Error no such partition / Entering rescue mode... / GRUB rescue> on GigaByte.

    SanDisk Cruzer Fit 16GB USB2, installed .img.xz on GigaByte, (UEFI), using Rufus
    SanDisk Cruzer Fit 16GB USB2, installed .img on GigaByte, (UEFI), using Rufus
    Boot gave: Error no such partition / Entering rescue mode... / GRUB rescue> on Acer.
    Boot gave: Error no such partition / Entering rescue mode... / GRUB rescue> on HP.
    Boot gave: Error no such partition / Entering rescue mode... / GRUB rescue> on GigaByte.

    Kingston Data Traveler 4GB USB2, installed .img.xz on GigaByte, (UEFI), using Etcher
    Kingston Data Traveler 4GB USB2, installed .img on GigaByte, (UEFI), using Etcher
    Boot gave: Error no such partition / Entering rescue mode... / GRUB rescue> on Acer.
    Boot gave: Error no such partition / Entering rescue mode... / GRUB rescue> on HP.
    Boot gave: Error no such partition / Entering rescue mode... / GRUB rescue> on GigaByte.

    SanDisk Cruzer Fit 16GB USB2, installed .img.xz on GigaByte, (UEFI), using Etcher
    SanDisk Cruzer Fit 16GB USB2, installed .img on GigaByte, (UEFI), using Etcher
    Boot gave: Error no such partition / Entering rescue mode... / GRUB rescue> on Acer.
    Boot gave: Error no such partition / Entering rescue mode... / GRUB rescue> on HP.
    Boot gave: Error no such partition / Entering rescue mode... / GRUB rescue> on GigaByte.

    To make a long story short, Template seems to be working when installed using Ububtu 20.04. It does not seem to be working, (for me), when installed using Windows 10.

    Acer TravelMate 8572T - 6805 i5 8GB RAM BIOS boot Ubuntu 18.04.
    HP EliteBook 8560W i7 24GB RAM BIOS boot Windows 10 Ver 1909, (Ubuntu 20.04)
    GigaByte GB-BXi7-5775R i7 8GB RAM UEFI boot Windows 10 Ver 1909, (Ubuntu 20.04)

    Kingston USB drive is 13 years old but has always been reliable. SanDisk is about 5 years old and has never been a problem.

    Etcher 1.5.101 does not have a problem with .xz if 7Zip is installed on computer. But I tried everything compressed and extracted.

    Previously the USB made with mkusb was not showing up on the boot menu as UEFI, without reinstalling grub, but mkusb seems to be completely working now.

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