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Thread: Howto make USB boot drives

  1. #511
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    Re: Howto make USB boot drives

    Quote Originally Posted by him610 View Post
    I seem to have an issue with getting and installing mksub.

    Code:
    hugh@8930:~/Downloads$ sudo apt install mkusb mkusb-nox
    Reading package lists... Done
    Building dependency tree       
    Reading state information... Done
    E: Unable to locate package mkusb
    E: Unable to locate package mkusb-nox
    Code:
    hugh@8930:~/Downloads$ lsb_release -a
    No LSB modules are available.
    Distributor ID:	Ubuntu
    Description:	Ubuntu 16.04.1 LTS
    Release:	16.04
    Codename:	xenial
    Is the universe repository available?
    Quote Originally Posted by bearlake View Post
    Hi,

    Have you tried this yet?

    Works on all my computers.
    Yes, him610, there is a detailed description in bearlake's link. I will write the details here to make it easier to find:

    1. You need the mkusb PPA in order to install mkusb.

    2. Yes, the universe repository is available, but must be activated in standard Ubuntu.

    So try with the following sequence of commands in a terminal window:

    -o-

    If you run standard Ubuntu, you need an extra instruction to get the repository Universe. (Kubuntu, Lubuntu ... Xubuntu have the repository Universe activated automatically.)

    Code:
    sudo add-apt-repository universe  # only for standard Ubuntu
    Code:
    sudo add-apt-repository ppa:mkusb/ppa  # and press Enter
    sudo apt-get update
    sudo apt-get install mkusb mkusb-nox usb-pack-efi

  2. #512
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    Re: Howto make USB boot drives

    Test version of a compressed image file of a '4GB' persistent live system

    Quote Originally Posted by C.S.Cameron View Post
    4GB is good, I'm getting pretty quick at modifying partitions. I have been using gparted in Puppy it is pretty fast and seems to ask less questions than in Ubuntu.
    I uploaded an early test version of a '4GB' compressed image file. You find it via this link,

    uefi-n-bios/dd_Ubuntu_16.04.1-persist-live-mkusb-guidus-4GB-test0.img.xz

    Edit: I uploaded an improved test version of a '4GB' compressed image file. You find it via this link,

    uefi-n-bios/dd_Ubuntu_16.04.1-persist-live-mkusb-guidus-4GB-test1.img.xz

    Here are the size and md5sum of the compressed image file.

    Code:
    $ ls -l dd_Ubuntu_16.04.1-persist-live-mkusb-guidus-4GB-test1.img.xz
    -rw-r--r-- 1 sudodus sudodus 1599526076 dec  6 10:20 dd_Ubuntu_16.04.1-persist-live-mkusb-guidus-4GB-test1.img.xz
    
    $ md5sum dd_Ubuntu_16.04.1-persist-live-mkusb-guidus-4GB-test1.img.xz
    135970e593e59c311f0f0f7690f50424  dd_Ubuntu_16.04.1-persist-live-mkusb-guidus-4GB-test1.img.xz
    Tips for new users

    In linux mkusb, mkusb-nox, guidus and dus can install a persistent live system from this image file.

    In Windows you can expand the file with 7-zip and after that install alias 'write' it with Win32 Disk Imager.

    Description
    • a first test file 'test0' and not intended for regular use
    • smaller than 4 GB to fit also in 'undersized' pendrives and memory cards (which are smaller than the nominal size)
    • MSDOS partition table to boot also in middle-aged HP computers
    • an extra partition compared to the standard made by mkusb and dus: a home-rw partition
    • Ubuntu 16.04.1 LTS 64-bit operating system
    • mkusb and dus (with guidus) installed
    • works in UEFI and BIOS mode booted from USB (both pendrive and card via USB adapter tested in three computers)
    • works in BIOS mode booted from the SD card slot in my NUC 6i3SYH
    • does not boot in UEFI mode from the SD card slot in my NUC 6i3SYH (lacks some drivers)

    It works to run this system in a pendrive or memory card as it is, but the intention is to install it in a fast USB 3 pendrive or fast memory card with at least 16 GB and then move and expand the partitions to use the whole drive. The following link describes the slightly different case with an installed system, but should help a beginner to move and expand, 'grow', partitions with gparted.

    uefi-n-bios/GrowIt.pdf

    Please try it and tell me what needs to be improved

    Edit: You find details of the partitioning in the following copy of some terminal window commands and the output from them, and in the screenshot of gparted, when booted in UEFI mode from a 4 GB SD card via a USB adapter.

    Code:
    ubuntu@ubuntu:~$ sudo lsblk -fm
    NAME   FSTYPE   LABEL                    UUID                                 MOUNTPOINT               NAME     SIZE OWNER GROUP MODE
    sda                                                                                                    sda    232.9G root  disk  brw-rw----
    ├─sda1 vfat     EFI                      274B-0C82                                                     ├─sda1   300M root  disk  brw-rw----
    ├─sda2                                                                                                 ├─sda2     1M root  disk  brw-rw----
    ├─sda3 ext4     root                     864c54c6-961a-4ad9-8c23-35eb8e0f24fb                          ├─sda3   100G root  disk  brw-rw----
    └─sda4 swap                              b69324e1-cab0-459c-97f3-bb42926ee94e [SWAP]                   └─sda4     5G root  disk  brw-rw----
    sdb                                                                                                    sdb      3.7G root  disk  brw-rw----
    ├─sdb1 ntfs     usbdata                  65274DEC6903A569                     /media/ubuntu/usbdata    ├─sdb1   384M root  disk  brw-rw----
    ├─sdb2                                                                                                 ├─sdb2     1K root  disk  brw-rw----
    ├─sdb3 vfat     ubu1604164               CBD2-7CEE                            /media/ubuntu/ubu1604164 ├─sdb3   122M root  disk  brw-rw----
    ├─sdb4 iso9660  Ubuntu 16.04.1 LTS amd64 2016-07-19-21-27-51-00               /cdrom                   ├─sdb4   1.4G root  disk  brw-rw----
    ├─sdb5 ext4     casper-rw                04c4b799-eeff-4642-8267-a09ff3c7445a /media/ubuntu/casper-rw  ├─sdb5   768M root  disk  brw-rw----
    └─sdb6 ext4     home-rw                  33354151-7e7f-4fab-9e46-9df7c850deea /home                    └─sdb6   766M root  disk  brw-rw----
    loop0  squashfs                                                               /rofs                    loop0    1.4G root  disk  brw-rw----
    ubuntu@ubuntu:~$ df
    Filesystem     1K-blocks    Used Available Use% Mounted on
    udev             1951440       0   1951440   0% /dev
    tmpfs             393216    6476    386740   2% /run
    /dev/sdb4        1477840 1477840         0 100% /cdrom
    /dev/loop0       1425792 1425792         0 100% /rofs
    /cow              774256  199072    520136  28% /
    /dev/sdb6         755656    2936    697820   1% /home
    tmpfs            1966072     180   1965892   1% /dev/shm
    tmpfs               5120       4      5116   1% /run/lock
    tmpfs            1966072       0   1966072   0% /sys/fs/cgroup
    tmpfs            1966072       4   1966068   1% /tmp
    tmpfs             393216      52    393164   1% /run/user/999
    /dev/sdb5         774256  199072    520136  28% /media/ubuntu/casper-rw
    /dev/sdb3         122990   54699     68292  45% /media/ubuntu/ubu1604164
    /dev/sdb1         393212   66056    327156  17% /media/ubuntu/usbdata
    ubuntu@ubuntu:~$ sudo parted /dev/sdb print
    Model: Generic- USB3.0 CRW -SD (scsi)
    Disk /dev/sdb: 3965MB
    Sector size (logical/physical): 512B/512B
    Partition Table: msdos
    Disk Flags: 
    
    Number  Start   End     Size    Type      File system  Flags
     3      2097kB  130MB   128MB   primary   fat32        boot
     4      130MB   1663MB  1533MB  primary
     2      1663MB  3274MB  1611MB  extended               lba
     5      1664MB  2469MB  805MB   logical   ext2
     6      2470MB  3274MB  803MB   logical   ext4
     1      3274MB  3676MB  403MB   primary   ntfs
    
    ubuntu@ubuntu:~$ test -d /sys/firmware/efi/ && echo efi || echo bios
    efi
    ubuntu@ubuntu:~$
    Edit: I created a new subpage about Win32 Disk Imager in order to help people install these compressed images from Windows,

    Win32DiskImager/compressed-image_2_USB-or-SD
    Last edited by sudodus; December 7th, 2016 at 10:43 AM.

  3. #513
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    Re: Howto make USB boot drives

    Downloading image now.

    Was playing with grub-n-iso, works good enough, possibly could store iso's on FAT32 first partition so iso's could be loaded using Linux or windows, (I'm building a drive now for a young friend who is in computer fixit school, that is what he prefers).

    The only problem is that the mkusb and dus interfaces sure have me spoiled.

    My wish list for dus is still to have the option to load iso files rather than make an iso clone.
    You could call it mkusb-dus-n-iso.

  4. #514
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    Re: Howto make USB boot drives

    I see, C.S.Cameron,

    Let us think about it, and try to see what would be a good way to combine mkusb, dus and grub-n-iso.

    Did you try this one? Post #49 in 'One pendrive for all PC (Intel/AMD) computers - single-boot dual-boot multi-boot':A compressed image file with a persistent live system of Lubuntu 14.04.3 LTS (32-bit) and mkusb version 10.4

    It is one year old, but I could refresh it with a current iso file, and current versions of mkusb and guidus. And it might not be tested by anybody (except me), so you can expect some remaining bugs. For example, I think the first thing to do is to start an LX-terminal. After that links2check and links2update will work. Do you think it is a good starting point?

  5. #515
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    Re: Howto make USB boot drives

    I will get on it as soon as I figure grub out for a multi iso booter I am putting on an external HDD partition.

  6. #516
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    Re: Howto make USB boot drives

    my USB boot drive is not responding. Ric Flair Drip
    Last edited by kinghov; November 22nd, 2017 at 04:50 PM.

  7. #517
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    Re: Howto make USB boot drives

    @kinghov,

    Please describe what you have, what you have done and what you want. Otherwise it is not possible to help.

    The computer:
    - Brand name and model
    - CPU
    - RAM (size)
    - graphics chip/card
    - wifi chip/card

    The operating system(s):
    - distro and version
    - single boot or dual boot
    - USB drive
    - UEFi mode or BIOS mode

    The tool:
    - which tool did you use to create the USB boot drive?
    - did you make a live-only drive or a persistent live drive or an installed system in the USB drive?

    The file:
    - Which file did you try to install from?
    - Did you check the md5sum?

    What happens, when you try to boot?
    - Please describe it with details.
    - Does the USB boot drive work in another computer?
    - Does another boot drive (USB or DVD) work in this computer?

  8. #518
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    Re: Howto make USB boot drives

    Test version of a compressed image file of a '4GB' persistent live system with Ubuntu

    I uploaded an improved test version of a '4GB' compressed image file. You find it via this link,

    uefi-n-bios/dd_Ubuntu_16.04.1-persist-live-mkusb-guidus-4GB-test1.img.xz

    Here are the size and md5sum of the compressed image file.

    Code:
    $ ls -l dd_Ubuntu_16.04.1-persist-live-mkusb-guidus-4GB-test1.img.xz
    -rw-r--r-- 1 sudodus sudodus 1599526076 dec  6 10:20 dd_Ubuntu_16.04.1-persist-live-mkusb-guidus-4GB-test1.img.xz
    
    $ md5sum dd_Ubuntu_16.04.1-persist-live-mkusb-guidus-4GB-test1.img.xz
    135970e593e59c311f0f0f7690f50424  dd_Ubuntu_16.04.1-persist-live-mkusb-guidus-4GB-test1.img.xz
    Tips for new users

    In linux mkusb, mkusb-nox, guidus and dus can install a persistent live system from this image file.

    In Windows you can expand the file with 7-zip and after that install alias 'write' it with Win32 Disk Imager.

    It works to run this system in a pendrive or memory card as it is, but the intention is to install it in a fast USB 3 pendrive or fast memory card with at least 16 GB and then move and expand the partitions to use the whole drive. The following link describes the slightly different case with an installed system, but should help a beginner to move and expand, 'grow', partitions with gparted.

    uefi-n-bios/GrowIt.pdf

    New way to select source device in guidus: 'ISO 9660 partition found. Quick choice possible'

    This is a very small drive, and it is also split into several partitions. There is not space enough in any of the partitions to download an Ubuntu iso file into it, but the Ubuntu system resides in partition #4 with the ISO 9660 file system. There is a quick choice to select it in order to install into another drive (for example another USB pendrive or memory card). If you answer 'No' you arrive at the standard tool to select source file.

    See the screenshots. See also this copy of the output to the console,

    Code:
     guidus - Do USB Stuff 
    guidus needs superuser permissions (sudo) for some tasks,
    in order to prepare and write to the target, a block device.
     dus 0.0.2 
    source device: /dev/sda4 'Ubuntu 16.04.1 LTS amd64'
    Drive that contains source file: /dev/sda
    Live drive, that is booted from: /dev/sda
    cands=1
    sdb
    Corsair_Voyager
     7.5G
    usb
    USB or memory card
    p_target: target=/dev/sdb
    live system or temporary superuser permissions
    live system or temporary superuser permissions
    live system or temporary superuser permissions
     Clone/extract  system from the source
    '/dev/sda4'
    to the target device (drive) '/dev/sdb'
    MODEL            NAME   FSTYPE  LABEL                      SIZE
    Voyager          sdb    iso9660 Lubuntu 16.04.1 LTS amd64  7.5G
                     ├─sdb1 iso9660 Lubuntu 16.04.1 LTS amd64  855M
                     └─sdb2 vfat    Lubuntu 16.04.1 LTS amd64  2.3M
    /dev/sda4
    /dev/sdb
    -----
    live system or temporary superuser permissions
    source=/dev/sda4
    target=/dev/sdb
    source=/dev/sda4
    ls -l  /dev/sda4
    brw-rw---- 1 root disk 8, 4 Dec  6 10:50 /dev/sda4
    Cloning a device to a USB drive or memory card ...................
    gpt_zap: done
    
    Installing '/dev/sda4' to '/dev/sdb' ... :
    
    < "/dev/sda4" pv  | dd bs=4096  of=/dev/sdb
     Please wait for sync until 'Done' is written 
     (flushing file system buffers to the device)
    1.43GiB 0:03:22 [7.21MiB/s] [================================>] 100%            
    374272+0 records in
    374272+0 records out
    1533018112 bytes (1.5 GB, 1.4 GiB) copied, 318.295 s, 4.8 MB/s
    Syncing the device ...
     Done :-) 
    p_clean:
    live system or temporary superuser permissions
    live system or temporary superuser permissions
    live system or temporary superuser permissions
    live system or temporary superuser permissions
    clean if necessary and return
    clean if necessary and quit
     Press Enter to finish guidus

    Please try it and tell me what needs to be improved

    Edit: I created a new subpage about Win32 Disk Imager in order to help people install these compressed images from Windows,

    Win32DiskImager/compressed-image_2_USB-or-SD
    Last edited by sudodus; December 7th, 2016 at 10:44 AM.

  9. #519
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    Re: Howto make USB boot drives

    Test version of a compressed image file of a '7.8GB' persistent live system with Lubuntu

    I uploaded a test version of a '7.8GB' compressed image file. This is a more mature system (than the previous test versions), with removed journaling in the root-overlay partition casper-rw to reduce wear. Journaling is still active in the home-overlay home-rw partition. It is based on the Lubuntu Xenial i386 (32-bit) current daily iso file (dated 2016-12-05), so 16.04.1+ (with the xenial-proposed repository turned off to improve the stability).

    Notice that this Lubuntu system boots in 32-bit and 64-bit computers and in UEFI and BIOS mode. The only limit is that it does not manage in secure boot. The Ubuntu version described in the previous post boot boots in 64-bit computers in BIOS and UEFI mode including secure boot (but not in 32-bit computers because it has a 64-bit kernel).

    You find the compressed image file with Lubuntu via this link,

    uefi-n-bios/dd_Lubuntu_16.04.1-persist-live-mkusb-guidus-7.8GB-test1-guid.img.xz: Use with mkusb, mkusb-nox, dus and guidus

    uefi-n-bios/dd_Lubuntu_16.04.1-persist-live-mkusb-guidus-7.8GB-test1.img-msdos.xz: Use with other tools, for example in Windows

    Here are the size and md5sum of the compressed image file.

    Code:
    $ ls -l dd_Lubuntu_16.04.1-persist-live-mkusb-guidus-7.8GB-test1-*.img.xz
    -rw-r--r-- 1 sudodus sudodus 946567388 dec  6 19:01 dd_Lubuntu_16.04.1-persist-live-mkusb-guidus-7.8GB-test1-guid.img.xz
    -rw-r--r-- 1 sudodus sudodus 940944856 dec  7 14:01 dd_Lubuntu_16.04.1-persist-live-mkusb-guidus-7.8GB-test1-msdos.img.xz
    
    $ md5sum dd_Lubuntu_16.04.1-persist-live-mkusb-guidus-7.8GB-test1-*.img.xz
    9092833492d5d38ce965f7ca991f0d2c  dd_Lubuntu_16.04.1-persist-live-mkusb-guidus-7.8GB-test1-guid.img.xz
    a1d48a7eab884388486525163b17e13c  dd_Lubuntu_16.04.1-persist-live-mkusb-guidus-7.8GB-test1-msdos.img.xz
    Tips for new users

    In linux mkusb, mkusb-nox, guidus and dus can install a persistent live system from this image file.

    In Windows you can expand the file with 7-zip and after that install alias 'write' it with Win32 Disk Imager.

    Description
    • an improved test file 'test1' also intended for regular use
    • smaller than 8 GB to fit also in 'undersized' pendrives and memory cards (which are smaller than the nominal size)
    • GUID partition table, GPT: Modern, works with huge drives. Needs gpt-fix - use with mkusb, mkusb-nox and guidus
    • MKUSB partition table: Easier to move and grow. Works with middle-aged HP. Works with any tool, also in Windows
    • an extra partition compared to the standard made by mkusb and dus: a home-rw partition
    • Lubuntu 16.04.1+ LTS 32-bit operating system
    • mkusb and dus (with guidus) installed
    • works in UEFI and BIOS mode booted from USB (both pendrive and card via USB adapter tested in three computers)
    • works in BIOS mode booted from the SD card slot in my NUC 6i3SYH
    • does not boot in UEFI mode from the SD card slot in my NUC 6i3SYH (lacks some drivers)


    It works to run this system in a pendrive or memory card as it is with Lubuntu and nominally 8 GB, but it makes things better if it in a fast USB 3 pendrive or fast memory card with at least 16 GB and then move and expand the partitions to use the whole drive. The following link describes the slightly different case with an installed system, but should help a beginner to move and expand, 'grow', partitions with gparted.
    uefi-n-bios/GrowIt.pdf

    See the screenshots:
    1. Lubuntu with the guidus welcome screen booted from a 32 GB SD card in a USB adapter
    2. The SD card after cloning but before growing the partitions, as seen by gparted
    3. The SD card after growing the partitions. This is only an example, you may want to change the proportion between the partitions. It is also possible to move the boundaries between the three big paritions later, if and when you need more space in one of them
    4. A USB pendrive with an MSDOS partition table after cloning but before growing the partitions, as seen by gparted. Notice the extended partition.


    The Lubuntu system resides in partition #4 with the ISO 9660 file system. In guidus there is a quick choice to select it in order to install into another drive (for example another USB pendrive or memory card). If you answer 'No' you arrive at the standard tool to select source file.

    Edit: I created a new subpage about Win32 Disk Imager in order to help people install these compressed images from Windows,

    Win32DiskImager/compressed-image_2_USB-or-SD
    Last edited by sudodus; December 7th, 2016 at 03:45 PM. Reason: added version with MSDOS partition table

  10. #520
    Join Date
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    Re: Howto make USB boot drives

    Sudodus, Win32 Disk Imager is not showing .XZ files as image file type, only file types shown are .IMG, .img & *.*.
    *.* Seems to be working, says it was successful, will edit post after reboot, (My windows machine is doing failed update loops so it might be a while, I wish cussing was allowed in the Forums).

    Nope, won't boot on HP and gparted shows drive as unformated.

    I'm sure mkusb can handle .xz files, (I'll double check), but I can not find a Win alternative.
    Last edited by C.S.Cameron; December 7th, 2016 at 05:19 AM.

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