I think the problem may be that your Windows partitions are all marked as "dynamic." I'm not an expert on this partition type, but I believe this is a synonym for the Windows Logical Disk Management (LDM), which in turn is similar to a Linux Logical Volume Management (LVM) configuration. I believe that Linux won't be able to directly mount these partitions as NTFS; instead, they'll be either inaccessible or accessed much like logical volumes in an LVM configuration, via files in /dev/mapper. Try posting the text-mode output of both of the following commands to give us more information:
You may be able to resize the LDM partition(s) within Windows, but I'm not very familiar with the Windows partitioning tool, so I'm not sure precisely how you'd do this. Note that, if I'm right, you need to resize the LDM partition(s), not the C: or D: drives, which are contained within the LDM partition(s).
sudo fdisk -lu /dev/sda