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Thread: After Lucid installation, my puter won't boot.

  1. #11
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    Re: After Lucid installation, my puter won't boot.

    Quote Originally Posted by srs5694 View Post
    I think you misunderstand what the BIOS Boot Partition is. It is not part of the Linux installation per se; it's used prior to Linux booting, by GRUB 2. You should not mount it as part of the Linux installation process. If you want to have a separate /boot partition, that's fine, but that should be a regular Linux partition, not a BIOS Boot Partition. You should flag the BIOS Boot Partition as such before you install Linux -- or at least before you install GRUB 2. Doing it afterwards, as you did, will do absolutely no good and may actually harm your installation, if you also used it for /boot, as it sounds like you did.
    How would I create a partition that is not part of the Linux installation? I'm using the partition editor found on the Kubuntu LiveCD. In addition, if it's not mounted or found by the Linux install, how do I do anything to do it in bash if I can't mount it?
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  2. #12
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    Re: After Lucid installation, my puter won't boot.

    I converted a small 160GB drive to GPT and use gpt on my 16GB flash drive just to see how it works.

    You just create the small partition and set bios_grub on. You do not do anything with it. Then when you install grub automatically finds it and puts part of its code into it.

    I do notice that when I run the boot_info script it tells me it is an unknown partition and that my grub core.img cannot be found, but that is because the script is not yet set up to parse gpt bios-grub partitions.
    For more info on UEFI boot install & repair - Regularly Updated :
    http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=2147295
    Please use Thread Tools above first post to change to [Solved] when/if answered completely.

  3. #13
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    Re: After Lucid installation, my puter won't boot.

    Quote Originally Posted by oldfred View Post
    I converted a small 160GB drive to GPT and use gpt on my 16GB flash drive just to see how it works.

    You just create the small partition and set bios_grub on. You do not do anything with it. Then when you install grub automatically finds it and puts part of its code into it.

    I do notice that when I run the boot_info script it tells me it is an unknown partition and that my grub core.img cannot be found, but that is because the script is not yet set up to parse gpt bios-grub partitions.
    When viewing my drive (sda), it's currently divided into:

    1MB free space
    10MB ext3 /boot
    20GB ext3 /
    10GB ext3 /altos
    1950GB ext3 /home
    1MB free space

    Here is what I did last time.

    (1) Stick the Kubuntu LiveCD in.
    (2) Boot the installer.
    (3) Format the /boot partition and the / partition. Mount them both, as well as /altos and /home.
    (4) Install Kubuntu.
    (5) Use the LiveCD to boot up the computer, since it won't boot as is, and won't boot to the first hard drive.
    (6) Mount the /boot partition.
    (7) Use the bios_on command.
    (8) Watch as absolutely nothing happens and my puter still won't boot.

    Please explain what you mean by 'create a small partition'. What about me creating /boot as a small partition DIDN'T work? Kubuntu is finding /boot and installing grub2 to it; why isn't that working? Do I need to not use the Kubuntu LiveCD to create the partitions?
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  4. #14
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    Re: After Lucid installation, my puter won't boot.

    I actually do not recommend /boot partitions for most desktops as it unnecessarily complicates things.

    I just used gparted and created the smallest (8MB) FAT32 partition I could and set bios-grub on. I think the EF02 code says it is the bios_grub partition. Then I did my install of Ubuntu.

    I think you could just create the 8MB fat partition and set bios-grub on. Then reinstall grub and it will find it. Having a separate /boot partition makes the reinstall of grub a little more complicated as you also have to mount that partition.

    Most of the partition listing tools do not even show sdb1.
    Code:
    fred@fred-LucidDT:~$ sudo gdisk -l /dev/sdb
    [sudo] password for fred: 
    GPT fdisk (gdisk) version 0.5.1
    
    Partition table scan:
      MBR: protective
      BSD: not present
      APM: not present
      GPT: present
    
    Found valid GPT with protective MBR; using GPT.
    Disk /dev/sdb: 312581808 sectors, 149.1 GiB
    Disk identifier (GUID): 8309E92E-0149-4DB4-9AF3-AA60B26ED1D1
    Partition table holds up to 128 entries
    First usable sector is 34, last usable sector is 312581774
    Total free space is 5070 sectors (2.5 MiB)
    
    Number  Start (sector)    End (sector)  Size       Code  Name
       1              34           16064   7.8 MiB     EF02  
       2           16065        51215219   24.4 GiB    0700  
       3        51215220        57352049   2.9 GiB     8200  
       4        57352050       312576704   121.7 GiB   0700  
    fred@fred-LucidDT:~$
    For more info on UEFI boot install & repair - Regularly Updated :
    http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=2147295
    Please use Thread Tools above first post to change to [Solved] when/if answered completely.

  5. #15
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    Re: After Lucid installation, my puter won't boot.

    Quote Originally Posted by tarahmarie View Post
    Here is what I did last time.

    (1) Stick the Kubuntu LiveCD in.
    (2) Boot the installer.
    (3) Format the /boot partition and the / partition. Mount them both, as well as /altos and /home.
    (4) Install Kubuntu.
    (5) Use the LiveCD to boot up the computer, since it won't boot as is, and won't boot to the first hard drive.
    (6) Mount the /boot partition.
    (7) Use the bios_on command.
    (8) Watch as absolutely nothing happens and my puter still won't boot.

    Please explain what you mean by 'create a small partition'. What about me creating /boot as a small partition DIDN'T work? Kubuntu is finding /boot and installing grub2 to it; why isn't that working? Do I need to not use the Kubuntu LiveCD to create the partitions?
    Step #7 is 100% useless when you did it. You should issue that command either before you do anything else (step #0) or, if the installer has that command, between steps 2 and 3.

    The partition you flag as the BIOS Boot Partition is not mounted in Linux. It is not the same as the /boot partition. Rather, it holds something on the order of 30KB of data that's used by GRUB during the boot process, before Linux itself is running. You can create the BIOS Boot Partition with Linux tools, but it's not a Linux filesystem per se. Try as an analogy some residential property (that's your hard disk). The Linux installation (the house you build on that property) has a number of rooms (partitions that are mounted in the Linux directory tree). The BIOS Boot Partition, though, is more like a detached garage or utility shed -- it's part of the property (hard disk), but it's not part of the house (Linux directory tree). Nonetheless (and here the analogy breaks down), you can't boot Linux without the BIOS Boot Partition, and the Linux installer (particularly the GRUB installation that occurs as part of the Linux installation) stores data in the BIOS Boot Partition.

    Another way of looking at this: Every time you boot the computer, the following steps happen:


    1. The BIOS runs miscellaneous hardware checks.
    2. The BIOS reads the first sector of the hard disk and executes the program it finds there. This is the stage 0 boot loader.
    3. The stage 0 boot loader accesses the hard disk and loads more data from it. In the case of a GPT disk with GRUB 2, the stage 0 boot loader tries to read this data from the BIOS Boot Partition. (Hence that partition's name.) This step is necessary because the first sector of the hard disk is only 512 bytes in size, so more complex code has to be stored elsewhere.
    4. The BIOS Boot Partition code loads the Linux kernel from a Linux partition.
    5. The Linux kernel begins running Linux programs, ultimately leading to a Linux login prompt or desktop display.



    This is a bit of a simplification, but as you can see, the BIOS Boot Partition comes into play before Linux boots, and it's not accessed afterwards (unless you need to update it).

  6. #16
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    Re: After Lucid installation, my puter won't boot.

    Ok, I can't use gparted with the live cd, but I can use parted at the CL.

    Should I do precisely this to create the small partition you're talking about?

    (1) Boot with the live cd.
    (2) Do NOT mount sda.
    (3) Use this at the CL:

    Code:
    sudo parted /dev/sda mkfs 1 fat32
    sudo parted /dev/sda set 1 bios_grub on
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  7. #17
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    Re: After Lucid installation, my puter won't boot.

    Quote Originally Posted by srs5694 View Post
    Step #7 is 100% useless when you did it. You should issue that command either before you do anything else (step #0) or, if the installer has that command, between steps 2 and 3.

    The partition you flag as the BIOS Boot Partition is not mounted in Linux. It is not the same as the /boot partition. Rather, it holds something on the order of 30KB of data that's used by GRUB during the boot process, before Linux itself is running. You can create the BIOS Boot Partition with Linux tools, but it's not a Linux filesystem per se. Try as an analogy some residential property (that's your hard disk). The Linux installation (the house you build on that property) has a number of rooms (partitions that are mounted in the Linux directory tree). The BIOS Boot Partition, though, is more like a detached garage or utility shed -- it's part of the property (hard disk), but it's not part of the house (Linux directory tree). Nonetheless (and here the analogy breaks down), you can't boot Linux without the BIOS Boot Partition, and the Linux installer (particularly the GRUB installation that occurs as part of the Linux installation) stores data in the BIOS Boot Partition.

    Another way of looking at this: Every time you boot the computer, the following steps happen:


    1. The BIOS runs miscellaneous hardware checks.
    2. The BIOS reads the first sector of the hard disk and executes the program it finds there. This is the stage 0 boot loader.
    3. The stage 0 boot loader accesses the hard disk and loads more data from it. In the case of a GPT disk with GRUB 2, the stage 0 boot loader tries to read this data from the BIOS Boot Partition. (Hence that partition's name.) This step is necessary because the first sector of the hard disk is only 512 bytes in size, so more complex code has to be stored elsewhere.
    4. The BIOS Boot Partition code loads the Linux kernel from a Linux partition.
    5. The Linux kernel begins running Linux programs, ultimately leading to a Linux login prompt or desktop display.



    This is a bit of a simplification, but as you can see, the BIOS Boot Partition comes into play before Linux boots, and it's not accessed afterwards (unless you need to update it).
    I am beginning to understand now. Are the steps I just outlined how I'll create that 8MB BIOS boot partition? Let's get that straight before I worry about how to install grub2 to it.
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  8. #18
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    Re: After Lucid installation, my puter won't boot.

    Quote Originally Posted by oldfred View Post
    I just used gparted and created the smallest (8MB) FAT32 partition I could and set bios-grub on. I think the EF02 code says it is the bios_grub partition. Then I did my install of Ubuntu.
    Yes, "EF02" in GPT fdisk corresponds to the "bios_grub flag" being set in GNU Parted. The two programs just have different ways of referring to the underlying GPT data structures. Either program can create a suitable partition.

    FWIW, libparted (upon which GNU Parted, GParted, and several other Linux partitioning tools) employs layers of abstraction that has the effect of obfuscating the underlying disk data structures. When I wrote GPT fdisk, I made the conscious decision to enable more direct editing of the true data structures. "EF02" is a shorthand code, not the real data that gets stored, but otherwise, GPT fdisk shows something that's closer to the truth than libparted-based tools show. This fact isn't really critical to the main problem under discussion, though; whether you think of a BIOS Boot Partition as having a particular type code or as having a particular flag set, the issue is that the partition must exist and be correctly flagged/typed when GRUB is installed. Furthermore, the partition must not be mounted by Linux by default, or even be set to be mountable, since it won't contain a valid filesystem once GRUB has used it. (Any filesystem on the partition will be destroyed by GRUB.)

  9. #19
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    Re: After Lucid installation, my puter won't boot.

    Quote Originally Posted by srs5694 View Post
    Yes, "EF02" in GPT fdisk corresponds to the "bios_grub flag" being set in GNU Parted. The two programs just have different ways of referring to the underlying GPT data structures. Either program can create a suitable partition.

    FWIW, libparted (upon which GNU Parted, GParted, and several other Linux partitioning tools) employs layers of abstraction that has the effect of obfuscating the underlying disk data structures. When I wrote GPT fdisk, I made the conscious decision to enable more direct editing of the true data structures. "EF02" is a shorthand code, not the real data that gets stored, but otherwise, GPT fdisk shows something that's closer to the truth than libparted-based tools show. This fact isn't really critical to the main problem under discussion, though; whether you think of a BIOS Boot Partition as having a particular type code or as having a particular flag set, the issue is that the partition must exist and be correctly flagged/typed when GRUB is installed. Furthermore, the partition must not be mounted by Linux by default, or even be set to be mountable, since it won't contain a valid filesystem once GRUB has used it. (Any filesystem on the partition will be destroyed by GRUB.)
    This conversation's getting a bit over my head again

    Are the steps I outlined above going to convert the 10MB /boot partition at sda1 that I had set up into the BIOS boot partition needed?
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  10. #20
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    Re: After Lucid installation, my puter won't boot.

    Quote Originally Posted by tarahmarie View Post
    I am beginning to understand now. Are the steps I just outlined how I'll create that 8MB BIOS boot partition? Let's get that straight before I worry about how to install grub2 to it.
    Try this, if you're willing to wipe the disk:


    1. Boot an Ubuntu installer or an emergency disc, like Parted Magic or System Rescue CD. If using an Ubuntu installer, boot it into a recovery mode so that you can get a shell rather than booting straight into the installer.
    2. Launch a text-mode shell.
    3. If you're using an Ubuntu installer, type "sudo apt-get install gdisk" to obtain and install GPT fdisk (gdisk).
    4. Type "sudo gdisk /dev/sda" (you can omit "sudo" on some emergency disks).
    5. Type "o" and answer "y" to the verification prompt to create a fresh partition table. Note that this will wipe out all your existing partitions.
    6. Type "n" to create a new partition. Give values of: partition #1, start sector 2048, end sector +1M, hex code of EF02. This creates the BIOS Boot Partition.
    7. Type "n" to create another new partition. Give values of: partition #2, hit enter for the default start sector, end sector +20G (or however big you want the Ubuntu main installation to be, minus space for your user files), hex code of 0700 (the default). This creates what will be the Linux root (/) partition.
    8. Type "n" to create another new partition. Give values of: partition #3, hit enter for the default start sector, end sector +2G (or however big you want to make your swap space), hex code of 8200. This creates a Linux swap partition.
    9. Type "n" to create another new partition. Give values of: partition #4, hit enter for the default start sector, hit enter for the default end sector (to use the whole disk), hex code 0700 (the default). This creates what will be the Linux /home partition. If you want other partitions, you should set some other end value and create additional partitions at this point.
    10. Type "p" to review your partition table. It should have an EF02 BIOS Boot Partition, two Linux/Windows data partitions, and a Linux swap partition. If it doesn't, correct the problems or quit by typing "q" and start again.
    11. Type "w" to save the partition table.
    12. If necessary, reboot into the Ubuntu installer; or just launch the installation process. When you get to the disk partitioning section, tell the system to do custom partitioning, but do not start from scratch. Instead, tell it to use /dev/sda2 as root (/), /dev/sda3 as swap, and /dev/sda4 as /home. (Adjust these partition IDs as necessary, if you deviated from the numbers I specified earlier.) The installer will create new filesystems or swap space on these partitions. You should not tell the installer to do anything with /dev/sda1; when the system installs GRUB, the GRUB installer should use /dev/sda1 automatically.
    13. Continue with the installation.



    It's possible to use GNU Parted or GParted instead of GPT fdisk in the preceding procedure. It may be possible to use the installer's disk partitioner, too, but I'm not positive of that. I just specified GPT fdisk because I'm more familiar with its syntax and I didn't want to experiment with other tools to write this reply.

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