post withdrawn, sorry for the inconvenience.
post withdrawn, sorry for the inconvenience.
Last edited by verb3k; September 6th, 2011 at 09:40 AM.
Freedom is neither exclusive nor unlimited.
Note: This was the original post not done by me, but i will try to update if anything new comes up
What is FFmpeg?
From the official website:
In this tutorial, I’ll suppose you’re using Ubuntu Linux Karmic or Lucid, but the tutorial should also work for other versions with slight modifications.FFmpeg is a complete, cross-platform solution to record, convert and stream audio and video. It includes libavcodec – the leading audio/video codec library.
For this tutorial, you’ll need FFmpeg (preferably a recent revision) compiled with "--enable-x11grab" and the following libraries:
Because the version of FFmpeg that is available in the repositories is not compiled with these libraries, you need to compile it yourself. There is an easy-to-follow guide for compiling FFmpeg on ubuntu with those libraries here:
We will do screencasting in 2 steps:
* Capture a lossless, crystal-clear video stream with lossless audio.
* Encode the resulting lossless file to a compressed version suitable for internet use.
The reason we’re doing it in a 2-step scheme (instead of just encoding directly as we capture) is that compressing a video with good quality takes some time and processing power that isn’t possible on the fly. The idea is to use the first step to only capture lossless audio/video feeds as fast as possible and store them, then use the 2nd step to do the real compression and get a better result. The 2nd step is needed because the losslessly-captured file is tremendously large to be used on the web.
Just for the record, basic ffmpeg syntax is:
Learn by example, fire up your terminal application and enter the following command:ffmpeg [input options] -i [input file] [output options] [output file]
ffmpeg -f alsa -ac 2 -i pulse -f x11grab -r 30 -s 1024x768 -i :0.0 -acodec pcm_s16le -vcodec libx264 -preset ultrafast -crf 0 -threads 0 output.mkv
Then press Enter to start the capturing process. To stop recording, go back to the terminal and press q.
In the above command, we capture audio from pulse (pulseaudio sound server) and encode it to lossless raw PCM with 2 audio channels (stereo). Then, we grab a video stream from x11 at a frame rate of 30 and a size of 1024×768 from the display :0.0 and encode it to lossless h264 using libx264. Using -threads 0 means automatic thread detection. If your distribution does not use the pulseaudio sound system, see FAQ section. The resulting streams will be muxed in a Matroska container (.mkv). The output file “output.mkv” will be saved to the current working directory.
Before we move to step 2, let’s look at things you can change in step 1. Obviously, the most important of which is the resolution. If you want to capture your entire desktop, then you have to enter the screen resolution you’re working at. It is also possible to capture a specific area of the screen by specifying a capture size that is smaller than the resolution. You can optionally offset this area by adding +X,Y after :0.0 which means it will look something like this:
This tells it to capture a rectangle of 800×600 with an X offset of 200 pixels and a Y offset of 100 pixels (the offset starting point is the top-left corner of the screen). Note that if you offset the capture area out of the screen, it will give you an error.-s 800x600 -i :0.0+200,100
Another thing you can change is the video frame rate (FPS). In the example above we used -r 30 which means capture at 30 FPS. You can change this value to whatever frame rate you want.
Now that we have the lossless file, let’s encode it to suit our needs. From here on, it all depends on what you’re planning to do with your screencast, but we’ll provide some basic examples and from there you move on.
In the above example, we encode the audio to AAC at a bitrate of 128k with 2 audio channels (stereo). We encode the video to the high quality H.264 video compression standard. We use the preset "slow" and a CRF value of 22 for rate control. The output file will be named “our-final-product.mp4″ and will be muxed in an .mp4 container. Note that FFmpeg determines the container format of the output file based on the extension you specify (i.e. if you specify the extension as .mkv, your file will be muxed into an .mkv matroska container). You can tweak the CRF value to get different results. The lower you set the CRF value, the better your video’s quality will be, and consequently the file size and encoding time will increase, and vice-versa.ffmpeg -i output.mkv -acodec libfaac -ab 128k -ac 2 -vcodec libx264 -preset slow -crf 22 -threads 0 our-final-product.mp4
WebM is a new, high-quality, free/open format that can be played in modern web browsers that support the HTML5 <video> tag. Since libvpx does not have a constant quality mode yet, we're doing the encode in 2 passes:
Pass 2:ffmpeg -i output.mkv -an -vcodec libvpx -b 1000k -pass 1 our-final-product.webm
Change the bitrate (-b 1000k) to control the size/quality tradeoff. Also, change the number of threads (-threads 2) to suit the number of threads your CPU has. If your CPU is not multi-threaded, you can omit the -threads option completely. If you have a modern web browser, you can open the file and play it natively inside it. A WebM file consists of VP8 video and Vorbis audio mulitplexed into a .webm container (which is basically a subset of the Matroska container, aka .mkv).ffmpeg -i output.mkv -acodec libvorbis -ab 128k -ac 2 -vcodec libvpx -b 1000k -threads 2 -pass 2 our-final-product.webm
Usually when you start screencasting, there will be a few moments of “getting ready” that you may want to cut out of your final product. Same thing near the end. It is possible to only encode a specific range of the original lossless file you captured using the -ss and -t options. These options can come before the input file option (i.e. before -i output.mkv) or after it. If they are specified after it, seeking will be more accurate but a lot slower. In the above example, we specified the starting point of the encoding of our final product after 10 seconds from the start of the original input file using -ss 00:00:10. We also specify the duration of the encoding to be 7 minutes and 22 seconds, because we want to effectively cut something at the end we don’t want to show. If there isn’t anything you want to hide at the end, you can just omit the -t option altogether. We use Vorbis and H.264 for the audio and video respectively and mux the entire thing to an .mkv container. This mix of Vorbis/H.264/Matroska is my favorite .ffmpeg -ss 00:00:10 -t 00:07:22 -i output.mkv -acodec libvorbis -ab 128k -ac 2 -vcodec libx264 -preset slow -crf 22 -threads 0 our-final-product.mkv
Here we have a typical avi with xvid and mp3. The options from “-me_method full” to “-trellis 1″ are encoding parameters for libxvid. You can see that we used libmp3lame to encode the audio with the same options we used for the other examples. For video, tweaking the value of -qscale will give different results. Smaller value means higher video quality but increased file size and encoding time (Similar to libx264’s -crf in the first example) . The output file is muxed into an .avi container.ffmpeg -i output.mkv -acodec libmp3lame -ab 128k -ac 2 -vcodec libxvid -qscale 8 -me_method full -mbd rd -flags +gmc+qpel+mv4 -trellis 1 -threads 0 our-final-product.avi
In the above example, we have a completely free file , with vorbis for audio and theora for video. The video is encoded at 1000k bitrate and the output file is muxed to an .ogg container. The audio quality should be great since vorbis is a great audio codec, but the video quality will not be as good. Theora lags behind in almost every aspect of video compression. See the WebM example above (example 2) for a better free and open alternative.ffmpeg -i output.mkv -acodec libvorbis -ab 128k -ac 2 -vcodec libtheora -b 1000k our-final-product.ogg
There are many tricks you can use with step 2. You can record your entire desktop at step 1 and then crop it in step 2 to only cover the area you worked on. You can also resize your screencast in step 2. Dealing with these situations and many others is beyond the scope of this tutorial.
Q: How do I get the exact size and coordinates of a specific window I want to capture?
A: Use a command called “xwininfo“. Basically, you run this command and then click on the window that you want to capture. It will then print the window information to the terminal. This command prints a lot of information, but what you need are the following lines:
Absolute upper-left X:
Absolute upper-left Y:
If the command, for example, prints:
Absolute upper-left X: 383
Absolute upper-left Y: 184
Then, you will adapt it to FFmpeg like this:
-s 664x486 -i :0.0+383,184
Note that we used 664 instead of 665 for the width since ffmpeg only accepts resolutions divisible by 2.
You can use the following command line combination with "xwininfo" to only print the information you’ll be needing:
Q: How can I control PulseAudio input? (e.g. capture application audio instead of mic)xwininfo | grep -e Width -e Height -e Absolute
A: Install “pavucontrol“. Start recording with ffmpeg. Start pavucontrol. Go to the “Recording” tab and you’ll find ffmpeg listed there. Change audio capture from “Internal Audio Analog Stereo” to “Monitor of Internal Audio Analog Stereo“.
Now it should record system and application audio instead of microphone.
This setting will be remembered. The next time you want to capture with FFmpeg, it will automatically start recording system audio. If you want to revert this, use pavucontrol again to change back to microphone input.
Q: What are the recommended codecs/container to use if I’m planning to upload my screencast to YouTube?
A: YouTube recommends uploading clips using H.264 for the video and AAC for the audio in an .mp4 container (as in example 1 of step 2). This is the safest format to upload into because some codecs do have issues with YouTube. Refer to this page for other recommended codecs and containers for YouTube.
Q: What do I do if my system does not use the PulseAudio sound server?
A: Most recent Linux distributions have PulseAudio installed by default, but if your system does not have PulseAudio, then try replacing “-f alsa -ac 2 -i pulse” with something like:
-f alsa -ac 2 -i hw:0,0
Many users of this guide reported success with the above options. You might have to change the 0,0 to match that of your sound device. You could also try:
-f alsa -ac 2 -i /dev/dsp
Other users reported success with:
-f oss -ac 2 -i /dev/dsp
Basically there are many ways to do it, and it depends on your system’s sound configurations and hardware.
Q: How can I pause/resume screencasting?
A: That isn’t possible with ffmpeg yet, but you can use mkvmerge to achieve the same result. You can install this program from your distribution’s package management system under the package name mkvtoolnix, or download it from the official website. This program allows you to concatenate mkv files with identically-encoded streams to a single file. Meaning that if you want to make a pause from screencasting, you’ll just stop recording part 1, then start recording part 2 as another file, and finally concatenate (i.e. add) these 2 parts into a single screencast ready for final compression. You can do this for as many parts as you like. Example:
This command pruduces a video file named “complete.mkv” that has all the parts put together in the order they were specified into on the command line.mkvmerge -o complete.mkv part1.mkv +part2.mkv +part3.mkv +part4.mkv
However, note that all the parts you want to concatenate must have exactly the same size/framerate/encoding parameters, otherwise it won’t work. You can’t add files with different encoding options to each other.
Final note, before you start recording part 2 of your screencast, be sure to change the output file name, or else your previous precious work might be overwritten.
Q: I want to select an area of the screen with my mouse and get ffmpeg to record it. Is it possible?
A: Yes! There is a simple tool called "xrectsel" that you can use to select an area of the screen by drawing with your mouse, and it will print your selection coordinates which you can then use in ffmpeg. This tool comes as an auxiliary tool with the "FFcast2" bash script that wraps around ffmpeg's screencasting abilities
A: Add "+nomouse" after ":0.0" to look like this:
(thanks again FakeOutdoorsman):0.0+nomouse
Q: I have a problem, error message, or ffmpeg doesn't work the way I expected it to do. How do I get help?
A: The best way to get help with ffmpeg is to login to the official IRC support channel for ffmpeg #ffmpeg @ irc.freenode.net, because 1) you will get an instant reply or engage in discussion about your problem and provide realtime feedback 2) the developers of ffmpeg know more about ffmpeg and its problems than we do (and they almost always hang around there and help people). If you want to ask for help here, you're most welcome. We'll try our best to support you, but bear in mind that the answer might come late, or we may not be able to help you with your problem.
Added FFcast2 reference link
changed syntax for new presets format on step1 (Thanks FakeOutdoorsman)
Removed all broken links, other junks
Last edited by Bonster; October 7th, 2011 at 12:30 AM. Reason: ffcast link added
So She Said Internet, And I Said Inter-Not
how would you encode to flv so that I can share it on my website with the JW Player?
You would use almost the same commandline for the Example 1:Originally Posted by hachel
The only difference is the use of "-wpredp 0" after "-vpre slow" and the changing of the file extension to .flv.Code:ffmpeg -i output.mkv -acodec libfaac -ab 128k -ac 2 -vcodec libx264 -vpre slow -wpredp 0 -crf 22 -threads 0 our-final-product.flv
(Thanks for pasteeater and Dark_Shikari at #ffmpeg who actually provided the answer)
Last edited by verb3k; July 30th, 2010 at 09:08 PM.
Freedom is neither exclusive nor unlimited.
Added a link to your guide on HOWTO: Install and use the latest FFmpeg and x264. I'll make sure to forward disgruntled recordMyDesktop users here.
How could I record it "lossless" and then after the recording is finished encode it with these hardcore settings?
It is possible to set some kind of shortcut key that then allows you to pause recording? (like in recordmydesktop)
If the lossless output works for you then you can skip the re-encoding.
And the tutorial is very good in my opinion.
I got errors trying to install the libvorbis/libtheora libraries:
I've been getting the same 404 and failed to fetch errors when I open the update manager and click "check."Code:user@computer:~$ sudo add-apt-repository ppa:towolf/codecs && sudo apt-get update && sudo apt-get install libvorbis0a libvorbis-dev libtheora0 libtheora-dev [sudo] password for user: Executing: gpg --ignore-time-conflict --no-options --no-default-keyring --secret-keyring /etc/apt/secring.gpg --trustdb-name /etc/apt/trustdb.gpg --keyring /etc/apt/trusted.gpg --keyserver keyserver.ubuntu.com --recv 97C2201DE6018A3EFD75D884105054032EE163BB gpg: requesting key 2EE163BB from hkp server keyserver.ubuntu.com gpg: key 2EE163BB: "Launchpad PPA for Tobias Wolf" not changed gpg: Total number processed: 1 gpg: unchanged: 1 Hit http://ppa.launchpad.net karmic Release.gpg Ign http://ppa.launchpad.net karmic/main Translation-en_US Hit http://us.archive.ubuntu.com karmic Release.gpg Ign http://us.archive.ubuntu.com karmic/main Translation-en_US Hit http://security.ubuntu.com karmic-security Release.gpg Ign http://security.ubuntu.com karmic-security/main Translation-en_US Ign http://archive.ubuntu.com karmic Release.gpg Ign http://archive.ubuntu.com karmic/main Translation-en_US Hit http://archive.canonical.com karmic Release.gpg Ign http://archive.canonical.com karmic/partner Translation-en_US Hit http://ppa.launchpad.net karmic Release.gpg Ign http://ppa.launchpad.net karmic/main Translation-en_US Hit http://ppa.launchpad.net karmic Release.gpg Ign http://ppa.launchpad.net karmic/main Translation-en_US Hit http://ppa.launchpad.net karmic Release.gpg Ign http://ppa.launchpad.net karmic/main Translation-en_US Ign http://us.archive.ubuntu.com karmic/restricted Translation-en_US Ign http://us.archive.ubuntu.com karmic/universe Translation-en_US Ign http://us.archive.ubuntu.com karmic/multiverse Translation-en_US Hit http://us.archive.ubuntu.com karmic-updates Release.gpg Ign http://us.archive.ubuntu.com karmic-updates/main Translation-en_US Ign http://us.archive.ubuntu.com karmic-updates/restricted Translation-en_US Ign http://us.archive.ubuntu.com karmic-updates/universe Translation-en_US Ign http://us.archive.ubuntu.com karmic-updates/multiverse Translation-en_US Ign http://security.ubuntu.com karmic-security/restricted Translation-en_US Ign http://security.ubuntu.com karmic-security/universe Translation-en_US Ign http://security.ubuntu.com karmic-security/multiverse Translation-en_US Hit http://us.archive.ubuntu.com karmic Release Hit http://security.ubuntu.com karmic-security Release Hit http://ppa.launchpad.net karmic Release Ign http://archive.ubuntu.com karmic/universe Translation-en_US Hit http://archive.canonical.com karmic Release Ign http://archive.ubuntu.com karmic Release Hit http://repository.glx-dock.org karmic Release.gpg Ign http://repository.glx-dock.org karmic/cairo-dock Translation-en_US Hit http://us.archive.ubuntu.com karmic-updates Release Hit http://ppa.launchpad.net karmic Release Hit http://ppa.launchpad.net karmic Release Hit http://ppa.launchpad.net karmic Release Hit http://packages.medibuntu.org karmic Release.gpg Ign http://packages.medibuntu.org karmic/free Translation-en_US Hit http://security.ubuntu.com karmic-security/main Packages Hit http://archive.canonical.com karmic/partner Packages Ign http://archive.ubuntu.com karmic/main Packages Hit http://repository.glx-dock.org karmic Release Hit http://us.archive.ubuntu.com karmic/main Packages Hit http://us.archive.ubuntu.com karmic/restricted Packages Hit http://us.archive.ubuntu.com karmic/main Sources Hit http://us.archive.ubuntu.com karmic/restricted Sources Hit http://ppa.launchpad.net karmic/main Packages Hit http://ppa.launchpad.net karmic/main Sources Hit http://security.ubuntu.com karmic-security/restricted Packages Hit http://security.ubuntu.com karmic-security/main Sources Hit http://security.ubuntu.com karmic-security/restricted Sources Hit http://security.ubuntu.com karmic-security/universe Packages Ign http://packages.medibuntu.org karmic/non-free Translation-en_US Hit http://packages.medibuntu.org karmic Release Ign http://archive.ubuntu.com karmic/universe Packages Hit http://us.archive.ubuntu.com karmic/universe Packages Hit http://us.archive.ubuntu.com karmic/universe Sources Hit http://us.archive.ubuntu.com karmic/multiverse Packages Hit http://us.archive.ubuntu.com karmic/multiverse Sources Hit http://ppa.launchpad.net karmic/main Packages Hit http://us.archive.ubuntu.com karmic-updates/main Packages Hit http://us.archive.ubuntu.com karmic-updates/restricted Packages Hit http://security.ubuntu.com karmic-security/universe Sources Hit http://security.ubuntu.com karmic-security/multiverse Packages Hit http://security.ubuntu.com karmic-security/multiverse Sources Hit http://us.archive.ubuntu.com karmic-updates/main Sources Hit http://ppa.launchpad.net karmic/main Packages Hit http://ppa.launchpad.net karmic/main Packages Hit http://packages.medibuntu.org karmic/free Packages Ign http://archive.ubuntu.com karmic/main Packages Hit http://us.archive.ubuntu.com karmic-updates/restricted Sources Hit http://us.archive.ubuntu.com karmic-updates/universe Packages Hit http://us.archive.ubuntu.com karmic-updates/universe Sources Hit http://us.archive.ubuntu.com karmic-updates/multiverse Packages Hit http://us.archive.ubuntu.com karmic-updates/multiverse Sources Hit http://packages.medibuntu.org karmic/non-free Packages Ign http://archive.ubuntu.com karmic/universe Packages Err http://archive.ubuntu.com karmic/main Packages 404 Not Found [IP: 220.127.116.11 80] Hit http://repository.glx-dock.org karmic/cairo-dock Packages Err http://archive.ubuntu.com karmic/universe Packages 404 Not Found [IP: 18.104.22.168 80] Get:1 http://dl.google.com stable Release.gpg [189B] Ign http://dl.google.com stable/main Translation-en_US Get:2 http://dl.google.com stable Release [2,540B] Get:3 http://dl.google.com stable/main Packages [909B] Fetched 3,638B in 3s (1,201B/s) W: Failed to fetch http://archive.ubuntu.com/dists/karmic/main/binary-amd64/Packages.gz 404 Not Found [IP: 22.214.171.124 80] W: Failed to fetch http://archive.ubuntu.com/dists/karmic/universe/binary-amd64/Packages.gz 404 Not Found [IP: 126.96.36.199 80] E: Some index files failed to download, they have been ignored, or old ones used instead.
I'm running Ubuntu 9.10 x86_64
Last edited by sbelz79; March 2nd, 2010 at 09:22 PM. Reason: typo