WOW I'm speechless...
Well... I really don't know what to say. One of the possible things is that there may be something bad about your hardware?!? When my firefox started crashing randomly I apparently had my RAM crashing. That may be a possibility. Especially because weird things happened after a clean install.
So let's recap what you did. You rename the file named skype, and then created a new file with that code inside. Hmm.. That shouldn't have broken anything.
Are you using Ubuntu 64bit or 32bit? And where are you getting your skype from? Mine is from the skype website.
About the nautilus errors, I get some too. I don't know what they mean I just ignore them and it works fine. In case you're interested here's what I get:
But your windows works. That's really weird. I have absolutley no idea.
Initializing nautilus-gdu extension
** (nautilus:4914): WARNING **: No marshaller for signature of signal 'UploadFinished'
** (nautilus:4914): WARNING **: No marshaller for signature of signal 'DownloadFinished'
** (nautilus:4914): WARNING **: No marshaller for signature of signal 'ShareCreateError'
The weird thing is your error about contacting an admin. I don't much about that..
As for the qt package. I believe the package is libqt4-network? I have it in synaptic. Is the multiverse repository enabled? Try going to System -> Administration -> Software Sources and enabling multiverse, universe and all.
If you try skype again, try simplifying the lines and putting just:
And, (if you get this far) run skype from the terminal so that we can see the errors it gives.
Are you running compiz by any chance?
Anyhow... Good luck