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Thread: New to Ubuntu? Start here...

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  1. #1
    Join Date
    Apr 2008
    Chennai , INDIA
    Ubuntu 8.10 Intrepid Ibex

    A helpful thread for newbies.

    On how to install anything on Ubuntu:

    Medibuntu repositoryMultimedia,Entertainment & Distractions In Ubuntu)

    Compiz extra plugins:

    Helpful Uubntu commands:
    sudo command - run command as root
    sudo su - open a root shell
    sudo su user - open a shell as user
    sudo -k - forget sudo passwords
    gksudo command - visual sudo dialog (GNOME)
    kdesudo command - visual sudo dialog (KDE)
    sudo visudo - edit /etc/sudoers
    gksudo nautilus - root file manager (GNOME)
    kdesudo konqueror - root file manager (KDE)
    passwd - change your password

    sudo /etc/init.d/gdm restart - restart X (GNOME)
    sudo /etc/init.d/kdm restart - restart X (KDE)
    (file) /etc/X11/xorg.conf - display configuration
    sudo dpkg-reconfigure -phigh xserver-xorg - reset X configuration
    Ctrl+Alt+Bksp - restart X display if frozen
    Ctrl+Alt+FN - switch to tty N
    Ctrl+Alt+F7 - switch back to X display

    System Services¹
    start service - start job service (Upstart)
    stop service - stop job service (Upstart)
    status service - check if service is running (Upstart)
    /etc/init.d/service start - start service (SysV)
    /etc/init.d/service stop - stop service (SysV)
    /etc/init.d/service status - check service (SysV)
    /etc/init.d/service restart - restart service (SysV)
    runlevel - get current runlevel
    Package Management¹
    apt-get update - refresh available updates
    apt-get upgrade - upgrade all packages
    apt-get install pkg - install pkg
    apt-get remove pkg - uninstall pkg
    apt-get autoremove - remove obsolete packages
    apt-get -f install - try to fix broken packages
    dpkg –configure -a - try to fix broken packages
    dpkg -i pkg.deb - install file pkg.deb
    (file) /etc/apt/sources.list - APT repository list
    ifconfig - show network information
    iwconfig - show wireless information
    sudo iwlist scan - scan for wireless networks
    sudo /etc/init.d/networking restart - reset network
    (file) /etc/network/interfaces - manual configuration
    ifup interface - bring interface online
    ifdown interface - disable interface
    Special Packages
    ubuntu-desktop - standard Ubuntu environment
    kubuntu-desktop - KDE desktop
    xubuntu-desktop - XFCE desktop
    ubuntu-minimal - core Ubuntu utilities
    ubuntu-standard - standard Ubuntu utilities
    ubuntu-restricted-extras - non-free, but useful
    kubuntu-restricted-extras - KDE of the above
    xubuntu-restricted-extras - XFCE of the above
    build-essential - packages used to compile programs
    linux-image-generic - latest generic kernel image
    linux-headers-generic - latest build headers
    ufw enable - turn on the firewall
    ufw disable - turn off the firewall
    ufw default allow - allow all connections by default
    ufw default deny - drop all connections by default
    ufw status - current status and rules
    ufw allow port - allow traffic on port
    ufw deny port - block port
    ufw deny from ip - block ip adress
    Application Names
    nautilus - file manager (GNOME)
    dolphin - file manager (KDE)
    konqueror - web browser/filemanager (KDE)
    kate - text editor (KDE)
    gedit - text editor (GNOME)

    Recovery - Type the phrase “REISUB” while
    holding down Alt and SysRq (PrintScrn) with
    about 1 second between each letter. Your system
    will reboot.
    lsb_release -a - get Ubuntu version
    uname -r - get kernel version
    uname -a - get all kernel information

    If GRUB is corrupted :

    To know all commands in Terminal, press tab twice in terminal.

    To read and write ntfs:
    sudo aptitude install ntfs-config
    Last edited by Sef; July 31st, 2011 at 03:44 PM. Reason: Missed a line - ugm6hr - added; Edited out a line that is no longer a recommended way-sef
    what is beautiful is not always good, but what is good is always beautiful!
    When I'm right no one remembers..When I'm wrong no one forgets..

  2. #2
    Join Date
    Apr 2007
    Munich, Germany

    Re: New to Ubuntu? Start here...

    Quote Originally Posted by s3r4phim View Post


    Yes, ctrl+alt+backspace shuts down the X server, but annoyingly, it restarts it immediately afterward. For those wanting a command line to begin with, and then the option of choosing the desktop environment that they want afterward, do simply the following:

    mv /etc/rc3.d/S30gdm /etc/rc3.d/K80gdm
    mv /etc/rc3.d/S10xserver-xorg-input-wacom /etc/rc3.d/K80xserver-xorg-input-wacom
    simply reverse (switch the two arguments around) the commands to make it start GNOME automatically again.
    Actually, even more efficient in Ubuntu is just
    sudo /etc/init.d/gdm stop
    to turn it off and
    sudo /etc/init.d/gdm start
    to turn it back on.

    *Edit* ah, sorry, you meant to enable/disable it on boot. That could be done the way you mentioned. Or you could do
    /etc/init.d/gdm stop
    in a script ( made executable with
    chmod a+x
    moved to /etc/init.d/ with
    mv [path of] /etc/init.d/
    and then just
    update-rc.d defaults
    (there may be an even easier way to do it), but that's a bit more complex (maybe too much for this thread, any mod is welcome to shorten this post/delete it if they find it out of place).
    Last edited by lswest; June 10th, 2008 at 06:24 PM.

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