does the LiveCD system include the mdadm package? I don't think the regular install does
what does sudo fdisk -l see? does it at least identify the partition type?
is there anything like /dev/md0 or /dev/md1 in /dev?
if there is you could start by at least grabbing mdadm and then trying
(where X is the number of the md block device) although you might need a reboot after adding the mdadm tool to get it to detect - might work if you use a LiveUSB with persistence - if not you will need to actually install a system somewhere
$ mdadm --detail /dev/mdX
sorry, I'm pretty much a RAID n00b too