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View Full Version : [SOLVED] Yuck, partition soup...



doubi
April 17th, 2011, 10:26 PM
Hi all,

I'd like some advice on how to change my boot partition, the advantages / disadvantages of having a separate, small boot partition at the start of my drive, and on what risks I might have in removing a couple of partitions I have.

When I first got into Linux I was trying a bunch of different OS's, making partitions for them all over the place. After a horrible experience accidentally deleting most of my home dir the other day, I've decided the time has come to get my house in order backup-wise. Now also seems like a good time to get my partitions / boot stuff sorted out.

I've ended up with an NTFS partition with Windows XP, several ext3/4 ones with various Linices (some in an extended / logical partition), a small 512MB ext2 partition, which I think was meant to be a separate boot partition but hasn't been for a while, and bizarrely, two swap partitions.

Here's the most relevant output from the delightful http://bootinfoscript.sourceforge.net/ :



Boot Info Script 0.55 dated February 15th, 2010

============================= Boot Info Summary: ==============================

=> Grub 2 is installed in the MBR of /dev/sda and looks on the same drive in
partition #6 for /boot/grub.

sda1: __________________________________________________ _______________________

File system: ext2
Boot sector type: Grub 2
Boot sector info: Grub 2 is installed in the boot sector of sda1 and
looks at sector 29141134 of the same hard drive for
core.img, but core.img can not be found at this
location.
Operating System:
Boot files/dirs: /boot/grub/menu.lst /grub/menu.lst

sda2: __________________________________________________ _______________________

File system: Extended Partition
Boot sector type: Unknown
Boot sector info:

sda5: __________________________________________________ _______________________

File system: swap
Boot sector type: -
Boot sector info:

sda6: __________________________________________________ _______________________

File system: ext4
Boot sector type: -
Boot sector info:
Operating System: Ubuntu 10.04.2 LTS
Boot files/dirs: /boot/grub/grub.cfg /etc/fstab /boot/grub/core.img

sda7: __________________________________________________ _______________________

File system: swap
Boot sector type: -
Boot sector info:

sda8: __________________________________________________ _______________________

File system: ext4
Boot sector type: -
Boot sector info:
Operating System: Ubuntu 10.04.2 LTS
Boot files/dirs: /boot/grub/grub.cfg /etc/fstab /boot/grub/core.img

sda3: __________________________________________________ _______________________

File system: ext4
Boot sector type: -
Boot sector info:
Operating System: Ubuntu 10.04 LTS
Boot files/dirs: /etc/fstab

sda4: __________________________________________________ _______________________

File system: ntfs
Boot sector type: Windows XP
Boot sector info: No errors found in the Boot Parameter Block.
Operating System: Windows XP
Boot files/dirs: /boot.ini /ntldr /NTDETECT.COM

=========================== Drive/Partition Info: =============================

Drive: sda ___________________ __________________________________________________ ___

Disk /dev/sda: 160.0 GB, 160041885696 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 19457 cylinders, total 312581808 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes

Partition Boot Start End Size Id System

/dev/sda1 63 1,028,159 1,028,097 83 Linux
/dev/sda2 1,028,221 197,101,484 196,073,264 5 Extended
/dev/sda5 1,028,223 11,036,654 10,008,432 82 Linux swap / Solaris
/dev/sda6 179,735,283 195,013,034 15,277,752 83 Linux
/dev/sda7 195,013,098 197,101,484 2,088,387 82 Linux swap / Solaris
/dev/sda8 11,036,672 179,735,219 168,698,548 83 Linux
/dev/sda3 197,101,568 239,046,655 41,945,088 83 Linux
/dev/sda4 * 239,047,200 312,576,704 73,529,505 7 HPFS/NTFS
One thing I really don't understand is that the Windows partition seems to be the boot partition. I can only imagine that it "redirects" to grub on another partition somehow, but I can't see anything in boot.ini that does this? :



================================ sda4/boot.ini: ================================

[boot loader]
timeout=30
default=multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(3)\WINDOW S
[operating systems]
multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(3)\WINDOWS="Microsoft Windows XP Professional" /noexecute=optin /fastdetect
So my questions are:


Is it safe to remove one of my two swap partitions, and if so should I enlarge the other one?
Should I boot from a small boot partition to avoid this Windows-to-grub weirdness?
What tools should I use for either of the above?

My instant reason for wanting to do any of this is I simply wanted to change my grub boot order, and suddenly realised I didn't know on which of 5 or so partitions menu.lst was! I can see where it is now thanks to bootinfoscript, but this isn't a convenient state of affairs. Many thanks for your thoughts / advice.

Hedgehog1
April 17th, 2011, 10:47 PM
Might I request you post the entire script output, please? This way we can tell which swap partition is being used, and if the '/boot' partition is really no longer used.

The Hedge

:KS

p.s. If you want to see a really crazy partition layout, ask Dutch70 to post his. :D

Dutch70
April 17th, 2011, 11:03 PM
Hahaa, you should see my boot info script ;)

1. Yes it's safe to remove one of your swap partitions. The one you keep should be equal to the size of your RAM, or a slightly larger for overflow if you want. SwapFaq (https://help.ubuntu.com/community/SwapFaq)

2. I don't see any windows to grub weirdness on you computer. You have windows installed to sda4, which is a primary partition, so you're good. That's where the boot flag should be. I don't think Ubuntu even pays any attention to the boot flag.

If you want to change your partitioning scheme, (or swap) take a screenshot of gparted & attach it with the paper clip in the toolbar of your next post. I get a better idea with a visual of your hdd than from fdisk -l.

oldfred
April 18th, 2011, 12:46 AM
Herman posted some good info on separate system partitions. You only need a separate /boot on a desktop if you have an older system that can only boot from the first 137GB. But even then you can have an entire system partition in the first 137GB.

Herman on advantages/disadvantages of separate system partitions post#3
http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=1410392

You /boot has menu.lst from grub legacy. But you have grub2 in the MBR and are booting sda6. I would expect the grub menu in sda6 then gives you the choice to boot your other installs.

doubi
April 18th, 2011, 08:45 AM
Hi all,

Thanks for the feedback.

Here's the entire bootinfoscript output:



Boot Info Script 0.55 dated February 15th, 2010

============================= Boot Info Summary: ==============================

=> Grub 2 is installed in the MBR of /dev/sda and looks on the same drive in
partition #6 for /boot/grub.

sda1: __________________________________________________ _______________________

File system: ext2
Boot sector type: Grub 2
Boot sector info: Grub 2 is installed in the boot sector of sda1 and
looks at sector 29141134 of the same hard drive for
core.img, but core.img can not be found at this
location.
Operating System:
Boot files/dirs: /boot/grub/menu.lst /grub/menu.lst

sda2: __________________________________________________ _______________________

File system: Extended Partition
Boot sector type: Unknown
Boot sector info:

sda5: __________________________________________________ _______________________

File system: swap
Boot sector type: -
Boot sector info:

sda6: __________________________________________________ _______________________

File system: ext4
Boot sector type: -
Boot sector info:
Operating System: Ubuntu 10.04.2 LTS
Boot files/dirs: /boot/grub/grub.cfg /etc/fstab /boot/grub/core.img

sda7: __________________________________________________ _______________________

File system: swap
Boot sector type: -
Boot sector info:

sda8: __________________________________________________ _______________________

File system: ext4
Boot sector type: -
Boot sector info:
Operating System: Ubuntu 10.04.2 LTS
Boot files/dirs: /boot/grub/grub.cfg /etc/fstab /boot/grub/core.img

sda3: __________________________________________________ _______________________

File system: ext4
Boot sector type: -
Boot sector info:
Operating System: Ubuntu 10.04 LTS
Boot files/dirs: /etc/fstab

sda4: __________________________________________________ _______________________

File system: ntfs
Boot sector type: Windows XP
Boot sector info: No errors found in the Boot Parameter Block.
Operating System: Windows XP
Boot files/dirs: /boot.ini /ntldr /NTDETECT.COM

=========================== Drive/Partition Info: =============================

Drive: sda ___________________ __________________________________________________ ___

Disk /dev/sda: 160.0 GB, 160041885696 bytes
255 heads, 63 sectors/track, 19457 cylinders, total 312581808 sectors
Units = sectors of 1 * 512 = 512 bytes
Sector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 512 bytes

Partition Boot Start End Size Id System

/dev/sda1 63 1,028,159 1,028,097 83 Linux
/dev/sda2 1,028,221 197,101,484 196,073,264 5 Extended
/dev/sda5 1,028,223 11,036,654 10,008,432 82 Linux swap / Solaris
/dev/sda6 179,735,283 195,013,034 15,277,752 83 Linux
/dev/sda7 195,013,098 197,101,484 2,088,387 82 Linux swap / Solaris
/dev/sda8 11,036,672 179,735,219 168,698,548 83 Linux
/dev/sda3 197,101,568 239,046,655 41,945,088 83 Linux
/dev/sda4 * 239,047,200 312,576,704 73,529,505 7 HPFS/NTFS


blkid -c /dev/null: __________________________________________________ __________

Device UUID TYPE LABEL

/dev/sda1 c5ba0046-157b-4ca9-a57a-506b6d0325ad ext2
/dev/sda2: PTTYPE="dos"
/dev/sda3 1618da5d-3469-4836-b824-ffb7d6ae5fbd ext4
/dev/sda4 F87022D170229702 ntfs xp
/dev/sda5 b0f0e160-6031-4daa-83e6-1cd8e42fa460 swap
/dev/sda6 23be90ed-b6b6-4625-be7b-c59c1a11600a ext4
/dev/sda7 9c93e080-e6a3-4154-9163-a93002955b0e swap
/dev/sda8 301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3 ext4
/dev/sda: PTTYPE="dos"

============================ "mount | grep ^/dev output: ===========================

Device Mount_Point Type Options

/dev/sda8 / ext4 (rw,errors=remount-ro)
/dev/sda6 /media/doub2 ext4 (rw)
/dev/sda4 /media/xp fuseblk (rw,nosuid,nodev,allow_other,blksize=4096)


=========================== sda1/boot/grub/menu.lst: ===========================

# menu.lst - See: grub(8), info grub, update-grub(8)
# grub-install(8), grub-floppy(8),
# grub-md5-crypt, /usr/share/doc/grub
# and /usr/share/doc/grub-doc/.

## default num
# Set the default entry to the entry number NUM. Numbering starts from 0, and
# the entry number 0 is the default if the command is not used.
#
# You can specify 'saved' instead of a number. In this case, the default entry
# is the entry saved with the command 'savedefault'.
# WARNING: If you are using dmraid do not use 'savedefault' or your
# array will desync and will not let you boot your system.
default 0

## timeout sec
# Set a timeout, in SEC seconds, before automatically booting the default entry
# (normally the first entry defined).
timeout 10

## hiddenmenu
# Hides the menu by default (press ESC to see the menu)
#hiddenmenu

# Pretty colours
#color cyan/blue white/blue

## password ['--md5'] passwd
# If used in the first section of a menu file, disable all interactive editing
# control (menu entry editor and command-line) and entries protected by the
# command 'lock'
# e.g. password topsecret
# password --md5 $1$gLhU0/$aW78kHK1QfV3P2b2znUoe/
# password topsecret

#
# examples
#
# title Windows 95/98/NT/2000
# root (hd0,0)
# makeactive
# chainloader +1
#
# title Linux
# root (hd0,1)
# kernel /vmlinuz root=/dev/hda2 ro
#

#
# Put static boot stanzas before and/or after AUTOMAGIC KERNEL LIST

# This entry automatically added by the Debian installer for a non-linux OS
# on /dev/sda4
title Microsoft Windows XP Home Edition
root (hd0,3)
savedefault
makeactive
chainloader +1

# This is a divider, added to separate the menu items below from the Debian
# ones.
# title Other operating systems:
# root

### BEGIN AUTOMAGIC KERNELS LIST
## lines between the AUTOMAGIC KERNELS LIST markers will be modified
## by the debian update-grub script except for the default options below

## DO NOT UNCOMMENT THEM, Just edit them to your needs

## ## Start Default Options ##
## default kernel options
## default kernel options for automagic boot options
## If you want special options for specific kernels use kopt_x_y_z
## where x.y.z is kernel version. Minor versions can be omitted.
## e.g. kopt=root=/dev/hda1 ro
## kopt_2_6_8=root=/dev/hdc1 ro
## kopt_2_6_8_2_686=root=/dev/hdc2 ro
# kopt=root=UUID=44a3ba8b-8ce7-4cd0-8b05-6dfc91ec2b26 ro

## default grub root device
## e.g. groot=(hd0,0)
# groot=44a3ba8b-8ce7-4cd0-8b05-6dfc91ec2b26

## should update-grub create alternative automagic boot options
## e.g. alternative=true
## alternative=false
# alternative=true

## should update-grub lock alternative automagic boot options
## e.g. lockalternative=true
## lockalternative=false
# lockalternative=false

## additional options to use with the default boot option, but not with the
## alternatives
## e.g. defoptions=vga=791 resume=/dev/hda5
# defoptions=quiet splash

## should update-grub lock old automagic boot options
## e.g. lockold=false
## lockold=true
# lockold=false

## Xen hypervisor options to use with the default Xen boot option
# xenhopt=

## Xen Linux kernel options to use with the default Xen boot option
# xenkopt=console=tty0

## altoption boot targets option
## multiple altoptions lines are allowed
## e.g. altoptions=(extra menu suffix) extra boot options
## altoptions=(recovery) single
# altoptions=(recovery mode) single

## controls how many kernels should be put into the menu.lst
## only counts the first occurence of a kernel, not the
## alternative kernel options
## e.g. howmany=all
## howmany=7
# howmany=all

## should update-grub create memtest86 boot option
## e.g. memtest86=true
## memtest86=false
# memtest86=true

## should update-grub adjust the value of the default booted system
## can be true or false
# updatedefaultentry=false

## should update-grub add savedefault to the default options
## can be true or false
# savedefault=false

## ## End Default Options ##

title Ubuntu Studio 8.10, kernel 2.6.27-7-generic
uuid 44a3ba8b-8ce7-4cd0-8b05-6dfc91ec2b26
kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.27-7-generic root=UUID=44a3ba8b-8ce7-4cd0-8b05-6dfc91ec2b26 ro quiet splash
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.27-7-generic
quiet

title Ubuntu Studio 8.10, kernel 2.6.27-7-generic (recovery mode)
uuid 44a3ba8b-8ce7-4cd0-8b05-6dfc91ec2b26
kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.27-7-generic root=UUID=44a3ba8b-8ce7-4cd0-8b05-6dfc91ec2b26 ro single
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.27-7-generic

title Ubuntu Studio 8.10, memtest86+
uuid 44a3ba8b-8ce7-4cd0-8b05-6dfc91ec2b26
kernel /boot/memtest86+.bin
quiet

### END DEBIAN AUTOMAGIC KERNELS LIST

title Ubuntu 9.04
root (hd0,5)
kernel (hd0,0)/mint/vmlinuz-2.6.27-11-generic root=/dev/sda6 ro quiet splash
initrd (hd0,0)/mint/initrd.img-2.6.27-11-generic
quiet

title Ububtu Studio New, kernel 2.6.27-7-generic
root (hd0,6)
kernel (hd0,0)/studNew/vmlinuz-2.6.27-7-generic root=/dev/sda7 ro quiet splash
initrd (hd0,0)/studNew/initrd.img-2.6.27-7-generic
quiet


============================= sda1/grub/menu.lst: =============================

# menu.lst - See: grub(8), info grub, update-grub(8)
# grub-install(8), grub-floppy(8),
# grub-md5-crypt, /usr/share/doc/grub
# and /usr/share/doc/grub-doc/.

## default num
# Set the default entry to the entry number NUM. Numbering starts from 0, and
# the entry number 0 is the default if the command is not used.
#
# You can specify 'saved' instead of a number. In this case, the default entry
# is the entry saved with the command 'savedefault'.
# WARNING: If you are using dmraid do not use 'savedefault' or your
# array will desync and will not let you boot your system.
default 0

## timeout sec
# Set a timeout, in SEC seconds, before automatically booting the default entry
# (normally the first entry defined).
timeout 10

## hiddenmenu
# Hides the menu by default (press ESC to see the menu)
#hiddenmenu

# Pretty colours
#color cyan/blue white/blue

## password ['--md5'] passwd
# If used in the first section of a menu file, disable all interactive editing
# control (menu entry editor and command-line) and entries protected by the
# command 'lock'
# e.g. password topsecret
# password --md5 $1$gLhU0/$aW78kHK1QfV3P2b2znUoe/
# password topsecret

#
# examples
#
# title Windows 95/98/NT/2000
# root (hd0,0)
# makeactive
# chainloader +1
#
# title Linux
# root (hd0,1)
# kernel /vmlinuz root=/dev/hda2 ro
#

#
# Put static boot stanzas before and/or after AUTOMAGIC KERNEL LIST

# This entry automatically added by the Debian installer for a non-linux OS
# on /dev/sda4
title Microsoft Windows XP Home Edition
root (hd0,3)
savedefault
makeactive
chainloader +1

# This is a divider, added to separate the menu items below from the Debian
# ones.
# title Other operating systems:
# root

### BEGIN AUTOMAGIC KERNELS LIST
## lines between the AUTOMAGIC KERNELS LIST markers will be modified
## by the debian update-grub script except for the default options below

## DO NOT UNCOMMENT THEM, Just edit them to your needs

## ## Start Default Options ##
## default kernel options
## default kernel options for automagic boot options
## If you want special options for specific kernels use kopt_x_y_z
## where x.y.z is kernel version. Minor versions can be omitted.
## e.g. kopt=root=/dev/hda1 ro
## kopt_2_6_8=root=/dev/hdc1 ro
## kopt_2_6_8_2_686=root=/dev/hdc2 ro
# kopt=root=UUID=44a3ba8b-8ce7-4cd0-8b05-6dfc91ec2b26 ro

## default grub root device
## e.g. groot=(hd0,0)
# groot=44a3ba8b-8ce7-4cd0-8b05-6dfc91ec2b26

## should update-grub create alternative automagic boot options
## e.g. alternative=true
## alternative=false
# alternative=true

## should update-grub lock alternative automagic boot options
## e.g. lockalternative=true
## lockalternative=false
# lockalternative=false

## additional options to use with the default boot option, but not with the
## alternatives
## e.g. defoptions=vga=791 resume=/dev/hda5
# defoptions=quiet splash

## should update-grub lock old automagic boot options
## e.g. lockold=false
## lockold=true
# lockold=false

## Xen hypervisor options to use with the default Xen boot option
# xenhopt=

## Xen Linux kernel options to use with the default Xen boot option
# xenkopt=console=tty0

## altoption boot targets option
## multiple altoptions lines are allowed
## e.g. altoptions=(extra menu suffix) extra boot options
## altoptions=(recovery) single
# altoptions=(recovery mode) single

## controls how many kernels should be put into the menu.lst
## only counts the first occurence of a kernel, not the
## alternative kernel options
## e.g. howmany=all
## howmany=7
# howmany=all

## should update-grub create memtest86 boot option
## e.g. memtest86=true
## memtest86=false
# memtest86=true

## should update-grub adjust the value of the default booted system
## can be true or false
# updatedefaultentry=false

## should update-grub add savedefault to the default options
## can be true or false
# savedefault=false

## ## End Default Options ##

title Ubuntu Studio 8.10, kernel 2.6.27-7-generic
uuid 44a3ba8b-8ce7-4cd0-8b05-6dfc91ec2b26
kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.27-7-generic root=UUID=44a3ba8b-8ce7-4cd0-8b05-6dfc91ec2b26 ro quiet splash
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.27-7-generic
quiet

title Ubuntu Studio 8.10, kernel 2.6.27-7-generic (recovery mode)
uuid 44a3ba8b-8ce7-4cd0-8b05-6dfc91ec2b26
kernel /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.27-7-generic root=UUID=44a3ba8b-8ce7-4cd0-8b05-6dfc91ec2b26 ro single
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.27-7-generic

title Ubuntu Studio 8.10, memtest86+
uuid 44a3ba8b-8ce7-4cd0-8b05-6dfc91ec2b26
kernel /boot/memtest86+.bin
quiet

### END DEBIAN AUTOMAGIC KERNELS LIST

title Ubuntu 9.04
root (hd0,5)
kernel (hd0,0)/mint/vmlinuz-2.6.27-11-generic root=/dev/sda6 ro quiet splash
initrd (hd0,0)/mint/initrd.img-2.6.27-11-generic
quiet

title Ububtu Studio New, kernel 2.6.27-7-generic
root (hd0,6)
kernel (hd0,0)/studNew/vmlinuz-2.6.27-7-generic root=/dev/sda7 ro quiet splash
initrd (hd0,0)/studNew/initrd.img-2.6.27-7-generic
quiet


=================== sda1: Location of files loaded by Grub: ===================


.2GB: boot/grub/menu.lst
.2GB: boot/grub/stage2
.0GB: boot/initrd.img-2.6.27-7-generic
.0GB: boot/vmlinuz-2.6.27-7-generic
.2GB: grub/menu.lst
.2GB: grub/stage2
.0GB: initrd.img-2.6.27-7-generic
.0GB: vmlinuz-2.6.27-7-generic

=========================== sda6/boot/grub/grub.cfg: ===========================

#
# DO NOT EDIT THIS FILE
#
# It is automatically generated by /usr/sbin/grub-mkconfig using templates
# from /etc/grub.d and settings from /etc/default/grub
#

### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/00_header ###
if [ -s $prefix/grubenv ]; then
load_env
fi
set default="0"
if [ ${prev_saved_entry} ]; then
set saved_entry=${prev_saved_entry}
save_env saved_entry
set prev_saved_entry=
save_env prev_saved_entry
set boot_once=true
fi

function savedefault {
if [ -z ${boot_once} ]; then
saved_entry=${chosen}
save_env saved_entry
fi
}

function recordfail {
set recordfail=1
if [ -n ${have_grubenv} ]; then if [ -z ${boot_once} ]; then save_env recordfail; fi; fi
}
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,6)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 23be90ed-b6b6-4625-be7b-c59c1a11600a
if loadfont /usr/share/grub/unicode.pf2 ; then
set gfxmode=640x480
insmod gfxterm
insmod vbe
if terminal_output gfxterm ; then true ; else
# For backward compatibility with versions of terminal.mod that don't
# understand terminal_output
terminal gfxterm
fi
fi
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,6)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 23be90ed-b6b6-4625-be7b-c59c1a11600a
set locale_dir=($root)/boot/grub/locale
set lang=en
insmod gettext
if [ ${recordfail} = 1 ]; then
set timeout=-1
else
set timeout=10
fi
### END /etc/grub.d/00_header ###

### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/05_debian_theme ###
set menu_color_normal=white/black
set menu_color_highlight=black/light-gray
### END /etc/grub.d/05_debian_theme ###

### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/10_linux ###
menuentry 'Ubuntu, with Linux 2.6.32-30-generic' --class ubuntu --class gnu-linux --class gnu --class os {
recordfail
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,6)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 23be90ed-b6b6-4625-be7b-c59c1a11600a
linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-30-generic root=UUID=23be90ed-b6b6-4625-be7b-c59c1a11600a ro quiet splash
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-30-generic
}
menuentry 'Ubuntu, with Linux 2.6.32-30-generic (recovery mode)' --class ubuntu --class gnu-linux --class gnu --class os {
recordfail
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,6)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 23be90ed-b6b6-4625-be7b-c59c1a11600a
echo 'Loading Linux 2.6.32-30-generic ...'
linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-30-generic root=UUID=23be90ed-b6b6-4625-be7b-c59c1a11600a ro single
echo 'Loading initial ramdisk ...'
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-30-generic
}
menuentry 'Ubuntu, with Linux 2.6.32-23-generic' --class ubuntu --class gnu-linux --class gnu --class os {
recordfail
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,6)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 23be90ed-b6b6-4625-be7b-c59c1a11600a
linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-23-generic root=UUID=23be90ed-b6b6-4625-be7b-c59c1a11600a ro quiet splash
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-23-generic
}
menuentry 'Ubuntu, with Linux 2.6.32-23-generic (recovery mode)' --class ubuntu --class gnu-linux --class gnu --class os {
recordfail
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,6)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 23be90ed-b6b6-4625-be7b-c59c1a11600a
echo 'Loading Linux 2.6.32-23-generic ...'
linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-23-generic root=UUID=23be90ed-b6b6-4625-be7b-c59c1a11600a ro single
echo 'Loading initial ramdisk ...'
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-23-generic
}
menuentry 'Ubuntu, with Linux 2.6.32-22-generic' --class ubuntu --class gnu-linux --class gnu --class os {
recordfail
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,6)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 23be90ed-b6b6-4625-be7b-c59c1a11600a
linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-22-generic root=UUID=23be90ed-b6b6-4625-be7b-c59c1a11600a ro quiet splash
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-22-generic
}
menuentry 'Ubuntu, with Linux 2.6.32-22-generic (recovery mode)' --class ubuntu --class gnu-linux --class gnu --class os {
recordfail
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,6)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 23be90ed-b6b6-4625-be7b-c59c1a11600a
echo 'Loading Linux 2.6.32-22-generic ...'
linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-22-generic root=UUID=23be90ed-b6b6-4625-be7b-c59c1a11600a ro single
echo 'Loading initial ramdisk ...'
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-22-generic
}
menuentry 'Ubuntu, with Linux 2.6.32-21-generic' --class ubuntu --class gnu-linux --class gnu --class os {
recordfail
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,6)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 23be90ed-b6b6-4625-be7b-c59c1a11600a
linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-21-generic root=UUID=23be90ed-b6b6-4625-be7b-c59c1a11600a ro quiet splash
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-21-generic
}
menuentry 'Ubuntu, with Linux 2.6.32-21-generic (recovery mode)' --class ubuntu --class gnu-linux --class gnu --class os {
recordfail
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,6)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 23be90ed-b6b6-4625-be7b-c59c1a11600a
echo 'Loading Linux 2.6.32-21-generic ...'
linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-21-generic root=UUID=23be90ed-b6b6-4625-be7b-c59c1a11600a ro single
echo 'Loading initial ramdisk ...'
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-21-generic
}
### END /etc/grub.d/10_linux ###

### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/20_memtest86+ ###
menuentry "Memory test (memtest86+)" {
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,6)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 23be90ed-b6b6-4625-be7b-c59c1a11600a
linux16 /boot/memtest86+.bin
}
menuentry "Memory test (memtest86+, serial console 115200)" {
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,6)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 23be90ed-b6b6-4625-be7b-c59c1a11600a
linux16 /boot/memtest86+.bin console=ttyS0,115200n8
}
### END /etc/grub.d/20_memtest86+ ###

### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/30_os-prober ###
menuentry "Ubuntu 10.04 LTS (10.04) (on /dev/sda3)" {
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,3)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 1618da5d-3469-4836-b824-ffb7d6ae5fbd
linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-21-generic root=/dev/sda3
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-21-generic
}
menuentry "Microsoft Windows XP Professional (on /dev/sda4)" {
insmod ntfs
set root='(hd0,4)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set f87022d170229702
drivemap -s (hd0) ${root}
chainloader +1
}
menuentry "Ubuntu, with Linux 2.6.32-30-generic (on /dev/sda8)" {
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,8)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3
linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-30-generic root=UUID=301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3 ro quiet splash
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-30-generic
}
menuentry "Ubuntu, with Linux 2.6.32-30-generic (recovery mode) (on /dev/sda8)" {
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,8)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3
linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-30-generic root=UUID=301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3 ro single
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-30-generic
}
menuentry "Ubuntu, with Linux 2.6.32-29-generic (on /dev/sda8)" {
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,8)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3
linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-29-generic root=UUID=301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3 ro quiet splash
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-29-generic
}
menuentry "Ubuntu, with Linux 2.6.32-29-generic (recovery mode) (on /dev/sda8)" {
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,8)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3
linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-29-generic root=UUID=301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3 ro single
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-29-generic
}
menuentry "Ubuntu, with Linux 2.6.32-28-generic (on /dev/sda8)" {
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,8)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3
linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-28-generic root=UUID=301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3 ro quiet splash
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-28-generic
}
menuentry "Ubuntu, with Linux 2.6.32-28-generic (recovery mode) (on /dev/sda8)" {
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,8)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3
linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-28-generic root=UUID=301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3 ro single
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-28-generic
}
menuentry "Ubuntu, with Linux 2.6.32-27-generic (on /dev/sda8)" {
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,8)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3
linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-27-generic root=UUID=301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3 ro quiet splash
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-27-generic
}
menuentry "Ubuntu, with Linux 2.6.32-27-generic (recovery mode) (on /dev/sda8)" {
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,8)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3
linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-27-generic root=UUID=301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3 ro single
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-27-generic
}
menuentry "Ubuntu, with Linux 2.6.32-26-generic (on /dev/sda8)" {
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,8)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3
linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-26-generic root=UUID=301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3 ro quiet splash
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-26-generic
}
menuentry "Ubuntu, with Linux 2.6.32-26-generic (recovery mode) (on /dev/sda8)" {
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,8)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3
linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-26-generic root=UUID=301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3 ro single
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-26-generic
}
menuentry "Ubuntu, with Linux 2.6.32-25-generic (on /dev/sda8)" {
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,8)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3
linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-25-generic root=UUID=301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3 ro quiet splash
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-25-generic
}
menuentry "Ubuntu, with Linux 2.6.32-25-generic (recovery mode) (on /dev/sda8)" {
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,8)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3
linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-25-generic root=UUID=301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3 ro single
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-25-generic
}
menuentry "Ubuntu, with Linux 2.6.32-24-generic (on /dev/sda8)" {
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,8)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3
linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-24-generic root=UUID=301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3 ro quiet splash
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-24-generic
}
menuentry "Ubuntu, with Linux 2.6.32-24-generic (recovery mode) (on /dev/sda8)" {
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,8)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3
linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-24-generic root=UUID=301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3 ro single
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-24-generic
}
menuentry "Ubuntu, with Linux 2.6.32-23-generic (on /dev/sda8)" {
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,8)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3
linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-23-generic root=UUID=301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3 ro quiet splash
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-23-generic
}
menuentry "Ubuntu, with Linux 2.6.32-23-generic (recovery mode) (on /dev/sda8)" {
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,8)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3
linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-23-generic root=UUID=301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3 ro single
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-23-generic
}
menuentry "Ubuntu, with Linux 2.6.32-21-generic (on /dev/sda8)" {
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,8)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3
linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-21-generic root=UUID=301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3 ro quiet splash
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-21-generic
}
menuentry "Ubuntu, with Linux 2.6.32-21-generic (recovery mode) (on /dev/sda8)" {
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,8)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3
linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-21-generic root=UUID=301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3 ro single
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-21-generic
}
### END /etc/grub.d/30_os-prober ###

### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/40_custom ###
# This file provides an easy way to add custom menu entries. Simply type the
# menu entries you want to add after this comment. Be careful not to change
# the 'exec tail' line above.
### END /etc/grub.d/40_custom ###

=============================== sda6/etc/fstab: ===============================

# /etc/fstab: static file system information.
#
# Use 'blkid -o value -s UUID' to print the universally unique identifier
# for a device; this may be used with UUID= as a more robust way to name
# devices that works even if disks are added and removed. See fstab(5).
#
# <file system> <mount point> <type> <options> <dump> <pass>
proc /proc proc nodev,noexec,nosuid 0 0
# / was on /dev/sda6 during installation
UUID=23be90ed-b6b6-4625-be7b-c59c1a11600a / ext4 errors=remount-ro 0 1
# swap was on /dev/sda5 during installation
UUID=b0f0e160-6031-4daa-83e6-1cd8e42fa460 none swap sw 0 0
# swap was on /dev/sda7 during installation
UUID=9c93e080-e6a3-4154-9163-a93002955b0e none swap sw 0 0
/dev/sda4 /media/xp ntfs defaults 0 2
/dev/sda8 /media/doubuntu1 ext4 defaults 0 2


=================== sda6: Location of files loaded by Grub: ===================


92.4GB: boot/grub/core.img
92.4GB: boot/grub/grub.cfg
95.8GB: boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-21-generic
95.9GB: boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-22-generic
96.1GB: boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-23-generic
99.0GB: boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-30-generic
95.7GB: boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-21-generic
92.3GB: boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-22-generic
95.5GB: boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-23-generic
97.6GB: boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-30-generic
99.0GB: initrd.img
96.1GB: initrd.img.old
97.6GB: vmlinuz
95.5GB: vmlinuz.old

=========================== sda8/boot/grub/grub.cfg: ===========================

#
# DO NOT EDIT THIS FILE
#
# It is automatically generated by /usr/sbin/grub-mkconfig using templates
# from /etc/grub.d and settings from /etc/default/grub
#

### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/00_header ###
if [ -s $prefix/grubenv ]; then
load_env
fi
set default="0"
if [ ${prev_saved_entry} ]; then
set saved_entry=${prev_saved_entry}
save_env saved_entry
set prev_saved_entry=
save_env prev_saved_entry
set boot_once=true
fi

function savedefault {
if [ -z ${boot_once} ]; then
saved_entry=${chosen}
save_env saved_entry
fi
}

function recordfail {
set recordfail=1
if [ -n ${have_grubenv} ]; then if [ -z ${boot_once} ]; then save_env recordfail; fi; fi
}
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,8)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3
if loadfont /usr/share/grub/unicode.pf2 ; then
set gfxmode=640x480
insmod gfxterm
insmod vbe
if terminal_output gfxterm ; then true ; else
# For backward compatibility with versions of terminal.mod that don't
# understand terminal_output
terminal gfxterm
fi
fi
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,8)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3
set locale_dir=($root)/boot/grub/locale
set lang=en
insmod gettext
if [ ${recordfail} = 1 ]; then
set timeout=-1
else
set timeout=10
fi
### END /etc/grub.d/00_header ###

### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/05_debian_theme ###
set menu_color_normal=white/black
set menu_color_highlight=black/light-gray
### END /etc/grub.d/05_debian_theme ###

### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/10_linux ###
menuentry 'Ubuntu, with Linux 2.6.32-30-generic' --class ubuntu --class gnu-linux --class gnu --class os {
recordfail
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,8)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3
linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-30-generic root=UUID=301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3 ro quiet splash
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-30-generic
}
menuentry 'Ubuntu, with Linux 2.6.32-30-generic (recovery mode)' --class ubuntu --class gnu-linux --class gnu --class os {
recordfail
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,8)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3
echo 'Loading Linux 2.6.32-30-generic ...'
linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-30-generic root=UUID=301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3 ro single
echo 'Loading initial ramdisk ...'
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-30-generic
}
menuentry 'Ubuntu, with Linux 2.6.32-29-generic' --class ubuntu --class gnu-linux --class gnu --class os {
recordfail
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,8)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3
linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-29-generic root=UUID=301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3 ro quiet splash
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-29-generic
}
menuentry 'Ubuntu, with Linux 2.6.32-29-generic (recovery mode)' --class ubuntu --class gnu-linux --class gnu --class os {
recordfail
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,8)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3
echo 'Loading Linux 2.6.32-29-generic ...'
linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-29-generic root=UUID=301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3 ro single
echo 'Loading initial ramdisk ...'
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-29-generic
}
menuentry 'Ubuntu, with Linux 2.6.32-28-generic' --class ubuntu --class gnu-linux --class gnu --class os {
recordfail
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,8)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3
linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-28-generic root=UUID=301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3 ro quiet splash
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-28-generic
}
menuentry 'Ubuntu, with Linux 2.6.32-28-generic (recovery mode)' --class ubuntu --class gnu-linux --class gnu --class os {
recordfail
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,8)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3
echo 'Loading Linux 2.6.32-28-generic ...'
linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-28-generic root=UUID=301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3 ro single
echo 'Loading initial ramdisk ...'
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-28-generic
}
menuentry 'Ubuntu, with Linux 2.6.32-27-generic' --class ubuntu --class gnu-linux --class gnu --class os {
recordfail
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,8)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3
linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-27-generic root=UUID=301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3 ro quiet splash
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-27-generic
}
menuentry 'Ubuntu, with Linux 2.6.32-27-generic (recovery mode)' --class ubuntu --class gnu-linux --class gnu --class os {
recordfail
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,8)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3
echo 'Loading Linux 2.6.32-27-generic ...'
linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-27-generic root=UUID=301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3 ro single
echo 'Loading initial ramdisk ...'
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-27-generic
}
menuentry 'Ubuntu, with Linux 2.6.32-26-generic' --class ubuntu --class gnu-linux --class gnu --class os {
recordfail
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,8)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3
linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-26-generic root=UUID=301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3 ro quiet splash
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-26-generic
}
menuentry 'Ubuntu, with Linux 2.6.32-26-generic (recovery mode)' --class ubuntu --class gnu-linux --class gnu --class os {
recordfail
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,8)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3
echo 'Loading Linux 2.6.32-26-generic ...'
linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-26-generic root=UUID=301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3 ro single
echo 'Loading initial ramdisk ...'
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-26-generic
}
menuentry 'Ubuntu, with Linux 2.6.32-25-generic' --class ubuntu --class gnu-linux --class gnu --class os {
recordfail
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,8)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3
linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-25-generic root=UUID=301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3 ro quiet splash
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-25-generic
}
menuentry 'Ubuntu, with Linux 2.6.32-25-generic (recovery mode)' --class ubuntu --class gnu-linux --class gnu --class os {
recordfail
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,8)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3
echo 'Loading Linux 2.6.32-25-generic ...'
linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-25-generic root=UUID=301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3 ro single
echo 'Loading initial ramdisk ...'
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-25-generic
}
menuentry 'Ubuntu, with Linux 2.6.32-24-generic' --class ubuntu --class gnu-linux --class gnu --class os {
recordfail
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,8)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3
linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-24-generic root=UUID=301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3 ro quiet splash
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-24-generic
}
menuentry 'Ubuntu, with Linux 2.6.32-24-generic (recovery mode)' --class ubuntu --class gnu-linux --class gnu --class os {
recordfail
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,8)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3
echo 'Loading Linux 2.6.32-24-generic ...'
linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-24-generic root=UUID=301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3 ro single
echo 'Loading initial ramdisk ...'
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-24-generic
}
menuentry 'Ubuntu, with Linux 2.6.32-23-generic' --class ubuntu --class gnu-linux --class gnu --class os {
recordfail
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,8)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3
linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-23-generic root=UUID=301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3 ro quiet splash
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-23-generic
}
menuentry 'Ubuntu, with Linux 2.6.32-23-generic (recovery mode)' --class ubuntu --class gnu-linux --class gnu --class os {
recordfail
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,8)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3
echo 'Loading Linux 2.6.32-23-generic ...'
linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-23-generic root=UUID=301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3 ro single
echo 'Loading initial ramdisk ...'
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-23-generic
}
menuentry 'Ubuntu, with Linux 2.6.32-21-generic' --class ubuntu --class gnu-linux --class gnu --class os {
recordfail
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,8)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3
linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-21-generic root=UUID=301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3 ro quiet splash
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-21-generic
}
menuentry 'Ubuntu, with Linux 2.6.32-21-generic (recovery mode)' --class ubuntu --class gnu-linux --class gnu --class os {
recordfail
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,8)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3
echo 'Loading Linux 2.6.32-21-generic ...'
linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-21-generic root=UUID=301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3 ro single
echo 'Loading initial ramdisk ...'
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-21-generic
}
### END /etc/grub.d/10_linux ###

### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/20_memtest86+ ###
menuentry "Memory test (memtest86+)" {
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,8)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3
linux16 /boot/memtest86+.bin
}
menuentry "Memory test (memtest86+, serial console 115200)" {
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,8)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3
linux16 /boot/memtest86+.bin console=ttyS0,115200n8
}
### END /etc/grub.d/20_memtest86+ ###

### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/30_os-prober ###
menuentry "Ubuntu 8.10, kernel 2.6.27-7-generic (on /dev/sda3)" {
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,3)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 1c2fb8ce-a721-40d8-acc1-78beb25562c1
linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.27-7-generic root=UUID=1c2fb8ce-a721-40d8-acc1-78beb25562c1 ro quiet splash
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.27-7-generic
}
menuentry "Ubuntu 8.10, kernel 2.6.27-7-generic (recovery mode) (on /dev/sda3)" {
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,3)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 1c2fb8ce-a721-40d8-acc1-78beb25562c1
linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.27-7-generic root=UUID=1c2fb8ce-a721-40d8-acc1-78beb25562c1 ro single
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.27-7-generic
}
menuentry "Ubuntu 8.10, memtest86+ (on /dev/sda3)" {
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,3)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 1c2fb8ce-a721-40d8-acc1-78beb25562c1
linux /boot/memtest86+.bin
}
menuentry "Microsoft Windows XP Professional (on /dev/sda4)" {
insmod ntfs
set root='(hd0,4)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set f87022d170229702
drivemap -s (hd0) ${root}
chainloader +1
}
menuentry "Ubuntu, with Linux 2.6.32-23-generic (on /dev/sda6)" {
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,6)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 23be90ed-b6b6-4625-be7b-c59c1a11600a
linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-23-generic root=UUID=23be90ed-b6b6-4625-be7b-c59c1a11600a ro quiet splash
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-23-generic
}
menuentry "Ubuntu, with Linux 2.6.32-23-generic (recovery mode) (on /dev/sda6)" {
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,6)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 23be90ed-b6b6-4625-be7b-c59c1a11600a
linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-23-generic root=UUID=23be90ed-b6b6-4625-be7b-c59c1a11600a ro single
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-23-generic
}
menuentry "Ubuntu, with Linux 2.6.32-22-generic (on /dev/sda6)" {
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,6)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 23be90ed-b6b6-4625-be7b-c59c1a11600a
linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-22-generic root=UUID=23be90ed-b6b6-4625-be7b-c59c1a11600a ro quiet splash
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-22-generic
}
menuentry "Ubuntu, with Linux 2.6.32-22-generic (recovery mode) (on /dev/sda6)" {
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,6)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 23be90ed-b6b6-4625-be7b-c59c1a11600a
linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-22-generic root=UUID=23be90ed-b6b6-4625-be7b-c59c1a11600a ro single
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-22-generic
}
menuentry "Ubuntu, with Linux 2.6.32-21-generic (on /dev/sda6)" {
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,6)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 23be90ed-b6b6-4625-be7b-c59c1a11600a
linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-21-generic root=UUID=23be90ed-b6b6-4625-be7b-c59c1a11600a ro quiet splash
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-21-generic
}
menuentry "Ubuntu, with Linux 2.6.32-21-generic (recovery mode) (on /dev/sda6)" {
insmod ext2
set root='(hd0,6)'
search --no-floppy --fs-uuid --set 23be90ed-b6b6-4625-be7b-c59c1a11600a
linux /boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-21-generic root=UUID=23be90ed-b6b6-4625-be7b-c59c1a11600a ro single
initrd /boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-21-generic
}
### END /etc/grub.d/30_os-prober ###

### BEGIN /etc/grub.d/40_custom ###
# This file provides an easy way to add custom menu entries. Simply type the
# menu entries you want to add after this comment. Be careful not to change
# the 'exec tail' line above.
### END /etc/grub.d/40_custom ###

=============================== sda8/etc/fstab: ===============================

# /etc/fstab: static file system information.
#
# Use 'blkid -o value -s UUID' to print the universally unique identifier
# for a device; this may be used with UUID= as a more robust way to name
# devices that works even if disks are added and removed. See fstab(5).
#
# <file system> <mount point> <type> <options> <dump> <pass>
proc /proc proc nodev,noexec,nosuid 0 0
# / was on /dev/sda8 during installation
UUID=301c903c-485f-409f-8ff8-b792cf0ec7c3 / ext4 errors=remount-ro 0 1
# swap was on /dev/sda5 during installation
UUID=b0f0e160-6031-4daa-83e6-1cd8e42fa460 none swap sw 0 0
# swap was on /dev/sda7 during installation
UUID=9c93e080-e6a3-4154-9163-a93002955b0e none swap sw 0 0
/dev/sda4 /media/xp ntfs defaults 0 2
/dev/sda6 /media/doub2 ext4 defaults 0 2

=================== sda8: Location of files loaded by Grub: ===================


12.5GB: boot/grub/core.img
18.2GB: boot/grub/grub.cfg
12.6GB: boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-21-generic
12.6GB: boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-23-generic
14.0GB: boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-24-generic
25.4GB: boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-25-generic
30.1GB: boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-26-generic
13.1GB: boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-27-generic
18.4GB: boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-28-generic
9.2GB: boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-29-generic
49.3GB: boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-30-generic
5.7GB: boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-21-generic
12.6GB: boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-23-generic
14.0GB: boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-24-generic
16.4GB: boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-25-generic
29.8GB: boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-26-generic
26.8GB: boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-27-generic
13.0GB: boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-28-generic
15.3GB: boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-29-generic
49.2GB: boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-30-generic
49.3GB: initrd.img
9.2GB: initrd.img.old
49.2GB: vmlinuz
15.3GB: vmlinuz.old

=============================== sda3/etc/fstab: ===============================

# /etc/fstab: static file system information.
#
# Use 'blkid -o value -s UUID' to print the universally unique identifier
# for a device; this may be used with UUID= as a more robust way to name
# devices that works even if disks are added and removed. See fstab(5).
#
# <file system> <mount point> <type> <options> <dump> <pass>
proc /proc proc nodev,noexec,nosuid 0 0
/dev/sda3 / ext4 errors=remount-ro 0 1
# swap was on /dev/sda5 during installation
UUID=b0f0e160-6031-4daa-83e6-1cd8e42fa460 none swap sw 0 0
# swap was on /dev/sda7 during installation
UUID=9c93e080-e6a3-4154-9163-a93002955b0e none swap sw 0 0

=================== sda3: Location of files loaded by Grub: ===================


105.4GB: boot/initrd.img-2.6.32-21-generic
101.0GB: boot/vmlinuz-2.6.32-21-generic
105.4GB: initrd.img
101.0GB: vmlinuz

================================ sda4/boot.ini: ================================

[boot loader]
timeout=30
default=multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(3)\WINDOW S
[operating systems]
multi(0)disk(0)rdisk(0)partition(3)\WINDOWS="Microsoft Windows XP Professional" /noexecute=optin /fastdetect
=========================== Unknown MBRs/Boot Sectors/etc =======================

Unknown BootLoader on sda2

00000000 4e 04 69 cc fa 29 48 04 b5 d2 fa 1d 09 04 dc 21 |N.i..)H........!|
00000010 fa 53 49 04 b6 d8 fa 35 9d 04 a5 6f fa 48 86 04 |.SI....5...o.H..|
00000020 4c 92 fa 0c e1 04 0a 30 fa 38 d3 03 c6 24 fa 63 |L......0.8...$.c|
00000030 0d 03 c8 fe fa 9c 7a 03 ba f3 fa d7 77 03 d9 36 |......z.....w..6|
00000040 fa f4 14 03 c4 08 fb 65 96 03 db ce fb 56 41 03 |.......e.....VA.|
00000050 a7 c7 fb b1 e9 03 49 02 fc 29 40 03 11 85 fc 76 |......I..)@....v|
00000060 a1 02 be a9 fd 5c 49 02 87 f1 fe 1d f5 02 7e 1e |.....\I.......~.|
00000070 fe a3 c5 02 41 f5 ff 5c 6d 02 2b 78 ff b1 f2 01 |....A..\m.+x....|
00000080 ef aa 00 1c b1 01 ab 79 00 61 22 01 7c 12 00 b3 |.......y.a".|...|
00000090 7c 01 31 80 00 ce d2 00 f4 07 01 11 53 00 bb d5 ||.1.........S...|
000000a0 01 14 ce 00 a1 b9 01 4f 91 00 83 a4 01 9e d8 00 |.......O........|
000000b0 8e 55 01 d3 af 00 a6 28 02 1d 44 00 95 a4 02 76 |.U.....(..D....v|
000000c0 85 00 92 71 02 af 36 00 86 4c 02 da 4f 00 4e eb |...q..6..L..O.N.|
000000d0 03 14 2b 00 52 28 03 1d 47 00 54 67 03 30 7e 00 |..+.R(..G.Tg.0~.|
000000e0 94 b1 02 f9 ed 00 fd 1d 02 d4 d9 01 53 7f 02 74 |............S..t|
000000f0 15 01 e1 7f 02 28 29 02 16 37 01 df 05 02 72 9e |.....()..7....r.|
00000100 01 44 fb 02 b4 1c 00 e4 2c 02 dc 95 00 83 b6 03 |.D......,.......|
00000110 24 85 00 5a ba 03 7f 23 00 15 fa 04 0a 44 ff ce |$..Z...#.....D..|
00000120 27 04 71 fd ff 64 a8 04 c9 5b fe da 69 05 1f d2 |'.q..d...[..i...|
00000130 fe 11 e7 05 2c a0 fd 52 60 04 e5 81 fc a9 d8 04 |....,..R`.......|
00000140 80 ab fc 4d 71 04 1c 4c fc 45 de 04 0f e0 fc 44 |...Mq..L.E.....D|
00000150 a7 03 f9 51 fc 6c 1f 04 51 7c fc 3e c2 04 76 a3 |...Q.l..Q|.>..v.|
00000160 fc 37 d0 04 86 a6 fb e3 37 04 a1 01 fb a7 87 04 |.7......7.......|
00000170 5e 8e fb 74 ee 04 2a 93 fb 97 85 03 ea b6 fb d4 |^..t..*.........|
00000180 88 03 c9 d0 fc 36 53 03 b4 9f fc 6f 0f 03 d5 66 |.....6S....o...f|
00000190 fc 97 20 03 b7 03 fc a3 7b 03 c2 2d fc 0c bb 03 |.. .....{..-....|
000001a0 55 30 fb a7 21 02 88 e1 fb 48 2a 01 7a 16 fb 6d |U0..!....H*.z..m|
000001b0 ec 00 74 fa fb 92 46 ff 81 0e fc 0e 60 fe 00 01 |..t...F.....`...|
000001c0 01 40 82 fe bf ae 02 00 00 00 70 b7 98 00 00 fe |.@........p.....|
000001d0 ff ff 05 fe ff ff 37 da a6 0a f7 1e e9 00 00 00 |......7.........|
000001e0 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 |................|
000001f0 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 00 55 aa |..............U.|
00000200
And the gparted thumbnail is attached.


You /boot has menu.lst from grub legacy. But you have grub2 in the MBR and are booting sda6. I would expect the grub menu in sda6 then gives you the choice to boot your other installs.

2. I don't see any windows to grub weirdness on you computer. You have windows installed to sda4, which is a primary partition, so you're good. That's where the boot flag should be. I don't think Ubuntu even pays any attention to the boot flag.

Ah. Part of my confusion was from thinking the partition with the boot flag was where the boot process started.

So the MBR is attached to the drive, rather than stored in a specific partition... that makes sense. In the meantime I have learned that grub.cfg == menu.lst for grub2. Other questions arise:

4. If fdisk -l 'lies' to me about which is the boot partition... well, not really lies, you know what I mean... what's the standard tool I should use to find that out? (if bootinfoscript wasn't available)
5. My primary partition is /dev/sda8. What should I do if I want to get rid of or move /dev/sda6, which I'm apparently using to boot at the moment?

Many thanks!

oldfred
April 18th, 2011, 03:18 PM
The boot flag is used by windows (and lilo) but not by grub.

Only if you have boot issues would you want to know which is booting first. The boot script is real handy.

The first install listed in the grub menu is the one booting. And you can run mount command to see which you have booted.

Dutch70
April 18th, 2011, 04:12 PM
To move Grub2 to sda8, run this command.

sudo grub-install /dev/sda8
Here is the link for that, you may want to look over it.
https://help.ubuntu.com/community/Grub2#Changing%20or%20Moving%20GRUB%202 (https://help.ubuntu.com/community/Grub2#Changing%20or%20Moving%20GRUB%202)

You can delete /dev/sda7 & edit fstab by removing this line.

# swap was on /dev/sda7 during installation
UUID=9c93e080-e6a3-4154-9163-a93002955b0e none swap sw 0
To edit fstab, use...

gksudo gedit /etc/fstab
Then run update-grub (as root) and reboot.

I'm still looking over your partitions and boot script, it's just about as bad as mine. ;)
I'm thinking that we could make it simpler by a) Getting rid of sda1, but I'm not sure how to do that. b) Removing the old kernels by going to synaptic & search for "linux-image-2" and mark the old ones for complete removal. Be Careful not to remove the wrong one. Ubuntu Tweak will also do it for you.

Edit: I also want to mention that using sda3 for / and sda8 for /home would be a nice set up, but it would take some work.

Quackers
April 18th, 2011, 05:04 PM
Ignoring duplicate entries (with different kernels) what entries currently appear in the grub menu, and are they all bootable?
Which of these do you want to keep?

Dutch70, installing grub2 to a partition at this stage is probably over-complicating the already over-complicated :-)

doubi
April 19th, 2011, 10:14 AM
Thanks for all the replies!


[...]
I'm thinking that we could make it simpler by a) Getting rid of sda1, but I'm not sure how to do that.

Couldn't I just boot from CD and use GParted to remove the partition and move everything else "to the left"?
I'm not booting from it so it's not doing anything, right?

Or would I be in danger of messing up the GPT or something somehow because it's right at the start of the drive?
Or would the change in sda device numbering break something?


b) Removing the old kernels by going to synaptic & search for "linux-image-2" and mark the old ones for complete removal. Be Careful not to remove the wrong one. Ubuntu Tweak will also do it for you.

You can do that!? Awesome! :D


Edit: I also want to mention that using sda3 for / and sda8 for /home would be a nice set up, but it would take some work.
Yea, I read about that when first getting set up with Ubuntu. Can't remember why I didn't. Think I read somewhere that separating out the data means your drive head has to run about more and wears it down slightly quicker or something. Also, might it complicate things if I have 32bit distros alongside 64bit ones? (my laptop can convincingly emulate 64bit apparently, good for testing during development).

The boot flag is used by windows (and lilo) but not by grub.

Ah, good to know.


The first install listed in the grub menu is the one booting. And you can run mount command to see which you have booted.
So, say you have two copies of Ubuntu installed side by side. Every time you do a kernel update the boot menu appears to be reordered, putting the latest installed kernel at the top. Does that mean that as part of the process of updating the kernel grub is moved to the updating partition?

Ignoring duplicate entries (with different kernels) what entries currently appear in the grub menu, and are they all bootable?
Which of these do you want to keep?
I think it's:
Ubuntu 10.4 64bit on /dev/sda6
Ubuntu 10.4 32bit on /dev/sda3
Win XP on /dev/sda4
Ubuntu 10.4 32bit on /dev/sda8

I'm not fussed about keeping the /dev/sda3 one but I want to keep the others. I take it in general, if you want to install a new OS but keep your grub where it is, you choose not to install grub in the installation menu, then go back to your "main" OS and run grub-update and it'll find the new one and add it to the menu?

oldfred
April 19th, 2011, 03:34 PM
While grub2 is very good at finding other installs, you do have to update it in the version you boot to find changes in any others that you boot.

One work around is to boot the partition and boot the newest kernel. Ubuntu puts a link to the newest kernel in / (root).

from Ranch hand
Note that this does not define the kernel. It defines the partition. It boots the newest bootable kernel that it finds at that partition.

menuentry "Daily on sda13" {
set root=(hd0,13)
linux /vmlinuz root=/dev/sda13 ro quiet splash
initrd /initrd.img
}

I used drs305's command to limit ubuntu entries to two, turned off os-prober so it does not look for other systems and totally customized my 40_custom.
includes line to limit display to two, also hiding of windows recovery partition
Grub 2 Title Tweaks Thread -drs305
http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=1287602
In /etc/default/grub I added this:
gksudo gedit /etc/default/grub
GRUB_DISABLE_OS_PROBER=true
or
sudo chmod a-x /etc/grub.d/30_os-prober

Copy copy any entries you want from this and add whatever else you want:
gedit /boot/grub/grub.cfg
Copy them to and edit only titles:
gksudo gedit /etc/grub.d/40_custom
Then do:
sudo update-grub

Dutch70
April 19th, 2011, 05:11 PM
Couldn't I just boot from CD and use GParted to remove the partition and move everything else "to the left"?
I'm not booting from it so it's not doing anything, right?
I don't think you'll be able to move the entire extended partition to the left.


Yea, I read about that when first getting set up with Ubuntu. Can't remember why I didn't. Think I read somewhere that separating out the data means your drive head has to run about more and wears it down slightly quicker or something. Also, might it complicate things if I have 32bit distros alongside 64bit ones? (my laptop can convincingly emulate 64bit apparently, good for testing during development)
I don't know anything about wearing your hdd down quicker.
Yes, if you are using more than one distro, you don't want a /home for each of them. There are other ways to do that. However, the advantages of having a /home for your main distro are very nice.

I wouldn't worry too much about grub, it's a matter of 2 commands to reinstall or move. Sometimes only one command.


So, say you have two copies of Ubuntu installed side by side. Every time you do a kernel update the boot menu appears to be reordered, putting the latest installed kernel at the top. Does that mean that as part of the process of updating the kernel grub is moved to the updating partition?
If I understand you correctly, the answer to that is yes. For example, just about everyday when I update Natty on Ubuntu & Kubuntu, I have to reinstall grub2 to the system I want it on, but Natty gets a lot of updates right now, and the version of grub it uses is technically 1.99 as opposed to 1.98.

oldfred
April 19th, 2011, 06:03 PM
I do not know for sure, but if you have a large system partition then the drive heads have to search all over the drive for the most used system files. Smaller system partitions avoid that issue. Data typically is loaded one or two files at a time so having data all over drive is less wear.

We have seen 1 or 2TB drives with only a root partition and then with grub located near the end of the drive.

doubi
April 21st, 2011, 10:24 AM
Removing the old kernels by going to synaptic & search for "linux-image-2" and mark the old ones for complete removal.
Did that, apart from the previous two. Looking a lot neater now.

I got the 2.6.32.31 update this morning, on my main install (/dev/sda8 ). I was expecting it to do what it used to do - "take over" grub and put itself at the top of the boot menu. But oddly, this time, it didn't - I had to boot /dev/sda6 and update-grub there, as oldfred mentioned. I've been using only one install since last last summer, I guess the update to grub2 must have happened since then and I just didn't notice grub no longer did that taking-over thing.


To move Grub2 to sda8, run this command.

sudo grub-install /dev/sda8Here is the link for that, you may want to look over it.
https://help.ubuntu.com/community/Grub2#Changing%20or%20Moving%20GRUB%202 (https://help.ubuntu.com/community/Grub2#Changing%20or%20Moving%20GRUB%202)

I read over the documentation there. I'm sure it's safe to do, as you said you do it almost every day, but y'know, warnings in allcaps are worrying.

The warning (as you'll know) says that I'm asking grub to be installed to a partition rather than the MBR. Is there a way to install it "properly" to the MBR, or just update the MBR to look to /dev/sda8 rather than /dev/sda6?

e.g., The instructions for Reinstalling Grub, Method 2 on the Grub2 help page you linked show an example of using grub-setup, as opposed to grub-install, and says that the former command installs what's needed to the MBR as well as files to the partition. Might I be able to use it for my purposes? (with different arguments since I wouldn't be using a live cd, naturally)

What's weird is I read somewhere in the past half-hour that it grub-install can invoke grub-setup, so I would've thought grub-install would install to the MBR instead of throwing out threatening errors about installing to a partition...

dino99
April 21st, 2011, 10:32 AM
use startup-manager (system admin startup-manager) after installation from synaptic

Dutch70
April 21st, 2011, 11:53 AM
Did that, apart from the previous two. Looking a lot neater now.

I got the 2.6.32.31 update this morning, on my main install (/dev/sda8 ). I was expecting it to do what it used to do - "take over" grub and put itself at the top of the boot menu. But oddly, this time, it didn't - I had to boot /dev/sda6 and update-grub there, as oldfred mentioned. I've been using only one install since last last summer, I guess the update to grub2 must have happened since then and I just didn't notice grub no longer did that taking-over thing.
That's because you have grub installed to sda6, you're not using grub on sda8 according to your last boot script.


I read over the documentation there. I'm sure it's safe to do, as you said you do it almost every day, but y'know, warnings in allcaps are worrying.

The warning (as you'll know) says that I'm asking grub to be installed to a partition rather than the MBR. Is there a way to install it "properly" to the MBR, or just update the MBR to look to /dev/sda8 rather than /dev/sda6?

e.g., The instructions for Reinstalling Grub, Method 2 on the Grub2 help page you linked show an example of using grub-setup, as opposed to grub-install, and says that the former command installs what's needed to the MBR as well as files to the partition. Might I be able to use it for my purposes? (with different arguments since I wouldn't be using a live cd, naturally)

What's weird is I read somewhere in the past half-hour that it grub-install can invoke grub-setup, so I would've thought grub-install would install to the MBR instead of throwing out threatening errors about installing to a partition...

Use the live cd/usb install method and you won't get that error. This is actually the way I normally do it, but I do it from a different install. For example, you could run these two commands from the system you have on sda6 or from the live cd/usb. I just ran these for the heck of it, and I got no warnings like that. (except mine is sda1)

sudo mount /dev/sda8 /mnt
and...

sudo grub-install --root-directory=/mnt /dev/sda
Here is the link for that, check it out to make sure I didn't make a mistake.
https://help.ubuntu.com/community/Grub2#Reinstalling%20from%20LiveCD (https://help.ubuntu.com/community/Grub2#Reinstalling%20from%20LiveCD)

Edit: After looking at oldfred's post below, I just noticed the command I originally gave you had "sda8" instead of "sda". Probably from where I'm used to doing the one in the 1st command above, which is correct. Sorry about that, glad you heeded the warning.
Thanks oldfred! :)

oldfred
April 21st, 2011, 05:00 PM
If you boot into your install on sda8, you can directly install grub to the MBR from there with one line.

#reinstall from working (not liveCD) system - first find Ubuntu drive:
sudo fdisk -l
#if it's "/dev/sda" then just run:
sudo grub-install /dev/sda
#If that returns any errors run:
sudo grub-install --recheck /dev/sda
sudo update-grub

This only applies if you have more than one drive:
#to get grub to remember where to reinstall on updates:
sudo dpkg-reconfigure grub-pc
#Enter thru first pages,spacebar to choose/unchoose drive, enter to accept, do not choose partitions

doubi
April 22nd, 2011, 10:26 AM
Edit: After looking at oldfred's post below, I just noticed the command I originally gave you had "sda8" instead of "sda". Probably from where I'm used to doing the one in the 1st command above, which is correct. Sorry about that, glad you heeded the warning.
Thanks oldfred! :)
Aha! Silly me for not noticing the difference on the Grub2 page you linked.

WELL, thanks to your and oldfred's advice I've finally got things looking a bit tidier :-)



I'm thinking that we could make it simpler by a) Getting rid of sda1, but I'm not sure how to do that.
Turned out GParted was fine with that - booted from CD, unmounted everything inside the extended partition and I could extend it over where sda1 used to be no problem. Got rid of the extra swap and old kernels too, and grub is now installed to /sda7 - there wasn't even any confusion with /sda8 becoming /sda7 when I removed the /sda5 swap partition, thanks to the magic of UUIDs. Joy!

The only thing left to do now really is try some themes 'n' such on the grub menu so when people see it it looks more attractive and friendly and less "Oooh that linux stuff looks scary" :)

Many thanks for your help all!

Dutch70
April 22nd, 2011, 03:36 PM
Nice work doubi! :KS

Just want to mention, now that you've gotten rid of the /boot partition, you've got room for another primary partition if you ever wanted to create one. You could cut it out of sda3 for example.

Here's a good place to get ideas, and show your themes when you get it the way you like it.
http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=1718689&page=44 (http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=1718689&page=44)