Re: Screen goes blank at startup (reboot doesn't help)
I will admit that I have NOT looked at all of your screenshots...but...
Does this behavior persist if you boot off the Ubuntu Live CD??? If it DOES....then it sounds like you need to hit FN+F7 to toggle onboard LCD with the external VGA. OR...you may need to check your BIOS settings for video. Defaults should probably include both the internal and VGA enabled.
If the Live CD does NOT behave the same way...then I would consider reconfiguring your X settings or doing a reinstall (last resort). BTW, I highly recommend installing Envy (if you haven't already) to automatically download and install the NVidia video drivers.