Here's the way I have done it in the past (which doesn't seem to work on my xubuntu install, but worked fine when i was running Ubuntu Gutsy):
1. Download GCALDaemon (mine goes to the desktop)
2. Right-Click on the zipped file and select "Extract Here"
3. Doubleclick on the file created after extraction. It should have a GCALDaemon folder and install.txt inside
4. Open up a terminal, and type the following:
(Replace "filename" with the name of the file. you can do this by typing "sudo mv" and then dragging the "GCALDaemon" folder into the terminal.
sudo mv /home/pur6ezwyx/Desktop/"filename" /usr/local/sbin
5. Still in the terminal, enter:
chgrp -R pur6ezwyx /usr/local/sbin/GCALDaemon
chmod -R g+w /usr/local/sbin/GCALDaemon
6. Now enter:
chmod 755 /usr/local/sbin/GCALDaemon/bin/*.sh
7. You should see the output "Your Google password:"
To answer your other questions-- sudo logs you in as root and keeps you logged in as root as long as the terminal is open. It's safer than actually graphically logging in as root from the login page. If you don't feel comfortable with the terminal, you can swap out "gksudo" sometimes, which will bring up your graphical interface.
In order to offset code in your posts, you can highlight your entry and click the "#" icon at the top of the entry window.