Wikipedia also has a nice overview :
You will get a lot of opinions regarding file systems.
IMO / In my experience : Outside of benchmarking I do not see a noticeable performance difference between the file systems on a day-to-day general use desktop.
In selecting a file system, keep in mind reliability - what happens if things go wrong, any additional options, and compatibility (between operating systems). Just be careful when you read the "benchmarks" as they are certainly not the full story.
If you use XFS on your root system, grub can not boot xfs, so you need to either use lilo or set up a (ext2) boot partition.
Personally I use ext3 as IMO it is the most reliable / stable (although I am sure not everyone would agree, as you can see in the comments in some of those links). You should do just fine with ReiserFS, JFS, XFS, or Ext3 (these 4 are all quite solid and reliable IMO). Reiser4 and ext4 are up and coming, I do not have any direct experience with either.