Welcome to Ubuntu! Hope you like what you see and stay awhile!
I have a link in my signature that you should read about switching to Linux from Window's that might spark your interest and will give you a good insight of Linux to Windows.
I will break it to you now that becoming familiar with the terminal will be one of the best things you can do as a Linux user as you can always rely on it to get the job done! And sometimes it's easier to use than the Graphical User Interface (GUI).
With that said, I only know how to use Samba as an AWESOME file share server. It's simple to use and has a lot of features like security and being extremely configurable.
So let's begin!
To open a terminal in Linux, you can use the hot key ctrl+alt+t, or open the Dash and type terminal.
(You can copy and paste these next few commands into your terminal prompt)
We first need to create a directory to host the files and the directory will also be the share.
(You will need to change chris to your username)
The command mkdir will make a new directory, like creating a new folder in Window's. The /home/chris directory is like the C:\Users\Chris\ directory in Window's, just to give you a visual.
From the terminal, type:
The command sudo is used to give the normal user, you, super user or better explained as administrative privileges.
sudo vim /etc/samba/smb.conf
Use the down arrow key to scroll all the way to the very bottom of the page and press, o.
(Again, change chris to your username)
To exit VIM, you will press esc first, then hold Shift and press Z twice.
comment= new share
read only= no
guest ok= yes
Or you can type a ":"(Semi-colon), then type: wq
The /etc/samba/smb.conf is the configuration file that Samba uses to define a share, like we just did.
Now, this is an open file share with zero security. If you are interested in locking down this share where only certain users that will have to provide a password to access the share, then we can go over that just let me know!
We now need to restart the deamons that Samba uses, so we type:
sudo service smbd restart
That's it! You should be able to access the share from any device connected to your router!
sudo service nmbd restart