How did you determine that one of your HDD is faulty? I hope you are absolutely sure that your HDD is at fault.
Boot-Repair utility creates a LINK to 'Bootinfo Summary', you must post that link here as well; so we know what boot-repair found and how it repaired the boot or what it recommends.
Boot with the Live DVD/USb and post the output of:
Like oldfred points out, you have some house-cleaning to do as you have accumulated some old and unused kernels. We can do this later. Lets just get your system booting again.
sudo parted -l
sudo fdisk -l
(If you can then please don't make any changes to HDD's between you posting the outputs and us replying).