Hello, I need help in deciding which functional programming language to study.
I would like to learn a functional programming language, for the pleasure of it and to learn about the FP paradigm (I already know imperative and object oriented).
I normally work with C/C++ and write physical simulation programs or some mathematical code, although occasionally I write thousands of lines of code to handle the inputs to my programs (a lot of checks to be sure to never run a useless simulation because of some human error in typing the inputs). It would be nice if I could also use the FP language to speed up some parts of my work, so I'd like for it to be compatible with C/C++ in an easy way (I am not sure if it could even be an issue these days, but just in case...).
I read the newest "old threads" about functional programming, but they were mostly about FP vs OO vs Imperative or they did not motivate why one FP language instead of another. I would really appreciate if you could motivate with some detail the reason behind your FP language suggestion, because, thanks to the wiki, I already know a lot of names, what I lack is the reason they "came to be" (their "specialization" or reason for lack of thereof - what they are "best" for).
Also if you could specify how "popular" the language is, I would be grateful: I sometime have to deal with programs written by others, so if, by chance, I could already know the language someone else chose for his program, it would be an unexpected, but much welcome, bonus (as previously implied, I work in a physics department).
Last note: I would prefer a purely FP language (I read that I could use Python or C++ as functional programming languages, i.e., I am not interested in that).