Strictly no (no way to setup that logic), but that can be done in two passes.
If you run a dry run (--dry-run or -n) you can get the list of the files that were selected by the regular time and size algorithm. Then, you can take that list and run another rsync command, this time syncing using checksums.
This would be a simple example:
Hope it helps. Let us know how it goes.
rsync -ain --out-format='%n' source/ destination/ | rsync -av -c --files-from=- source/ destination/