elfin8er; Hi !
I can think of 2 things one needs to do in this situation.
1. On some versions of 'buntu with the liveDVD there is an option "boot from hard disk"; available from the boot options screen (shift key @ plymouth screen ->language screen, escape key to accept default -> boot options screen). What results from this boot method ?
2. Run a file system check:
#From liveDVD so everything is unmounted,swap off if necessary, change example shown with partition sda1 to your partition(s)
sudo blkid ## to identify your partitions
#e2fsck is used to check the ext2/ext3/ext4 family of file systems. -p trys fixes where response not required
sudo e2fsck -C0 -p -f -v /dev/sda1
#if errors: -y auto answers yes for fixes needing response see man e2fsck
sudo e2fsck -f -y -v /dev/sda1
please to advise on results. -> just try'n to help