Edit for people finding this thread from Google/Search:
Here's what worked for me:
sudo apt-get install linux-headers-generic build-essential dkms
cd Desktop <--or wherever you downloaded the deb
sudo dpkg -i wire*.deb
sudo modprobe wl
----Start original post----
I've done a fair bit of googling and since this is a new laptop with no data saved to it yet I went ahead and just tried to reinstall a few times after trying a few "solutions" on AskUbuntu, none of which ever worked for various reasons. One of them involved installing the build-essential package and downloading a deb file from someone's dropbox. The result I got out of that (after examining a log file) said something like a folder it was looking for (during the build process) didn't exist. Another solution involved reinstalling the... f-cutter package (sorry, I don't remember exactly what but I'm sure most here know what that's about). Anyway that didn't work either.
So right now I am running Ubuntu 12.10 (uname -a output: Linux Vostro-2520 3.5.0-19-generic #30-Ubuntu SMP Tue Nov 13 17:48:01 UTC 2012 x86_64 x86_64 x86_64 GNU/Linux). Using my android as an external wireless adapter I connected to the internet before installing and applied updates during as well as after install. As of right now there are no more updates available. (Edit: Just to be clear, I have installed nothing else nor attempted anything new to try and get this adapter fixed yet and await the first suggestions I see here instead).
Also, if I go into Software Sources and look under the Additional Drivers tab it does not list any proprietary drivers either in use or available to be enabled; it's empty.
Relevant output from lspci -nn:
Output of iwconfig:
07:00.0 Network controller : Broadcom Corporation BCM43142 802.11b/g/n [14e4:4365] (rev 01)
rfkill list all:
usb0 no wireless extensions.
eth0 no wireless extensions.
lo no wireless extensions.
Anyway, it's my dads and I'll be seeing him on Saturday so I've got some time to work with this and hopefully get feedback from y'all on any problems I encounter on suggestions about getting this puppy up and running. Thanks in advanced.
0: hci0: Bluetooth
Soft blocked: no
Hard blocked: no