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Thread: Once again this error: error: expected ‘,’ or ‘;’ before ‘{’ token

  1. #1
    Join Date
    Jan 2013
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    7

    Exclamation Once again this error: error: expected ‘,’ or ‘;’ before ‘{’ token

    Hi everyone. I wanted to compilate one file, but it gives me an error...

    Code:
    root@Collateral:/home/zoltan/Desktop/kaffeine-sc-plugin-0.4.0# gcc -O -fbuiltin -fomit-frame-pointer -fPIC -shared -o ca.so ca.c -ldl
    ca.c:107:1: error: expected ‘,’ or ‘;’ before ‘{’ token
    ca.c: In function ‘cactl’:
    ca.c:276:9: warning: too few arguments for format
    ca.c:289:13: warning: ignoring return value of ‘write’, declared with attribute warn_unused_result
    root@Collateral:/home/zoltan/Desktop/kaffeine-sc-plugin-0.4.0#
    As you can see, I want to compile one file to make "ca.so" file.

    The ca.c file is this:
    Code:
    /* Evil evil evil hack  - lets newcamd write CWs to a file..
     *
     * Compile as follows:
     * gcc -O -fbuiltin -fomit-frame-pointer -fPIC -shared -o ca.so ca.c -ldl
     *
     * then run newcamd with:
     *
     * LD_PRELOAD=./ca.so ./newcamd.i386 newcamd.conf
     *
     * Will then write CWs to /tmp/newcamhack.cw. A patched (vdr) sc will read
     * these codewords to decode a stream.
     *
     * This library is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
     * modify it under the terms of the GNU Library General Public
     * License as published by the Free Software Foundation; either
     * version 2 of the License, or (at your option) any later version.
     *
     * This library is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
     * but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
     * MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the GNU
     * Library General Public License for more details.
     *
     * You should have received a copy of the GNU Library General Public
     * License along with this library; if not, write to the
     * Free Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place - Suite 330,
     * Boston, MA 02111-1307, USA.
     */
    
    #define DEBUG
    
    #if defined(__GNUC__) && !defined(__STRICT_ANSI__)
    
    #include <dlfcn.h>
    #include <stdarg.h>
    #include <stdlib.h>
    #include <string.h>
    #include <unistd.h>
    #include <fcntl.h>
    #include <sys/types.h>
    #include <sys/stat.h>
    #include <linux/dvb/ca.h>
    #include <linux/dvb/dmx.h>
    #include <linux/dvb/frontend.h>
    #include <linux/ioctl.h>
    #include <stdio.h>
    #include <sys/socket.h>
    #include <netinet/in.h>
    #include <arpa/inet.h>
    
    
    
    /* BSDI has this functionality, but not define :() */
    #if defined(RTLD_NEXT)
    #define REAL_LIBC RTLD_NEXT
    #else
    #define REAL_LIBC ((void *) -1L)
    #endif
    
    static int cafd = -1;
    /*static int cafd1 = -1;
    static int cafd2 = -1;
    static int cafd3 = -1;*/
    static int ecm0 = -1;
    static int ecm1 = -1;
    static int ecm2 = -1;
    static int ecm3 = -1;
    static int caf;
    static char filename[25];
    static unsigned char scw[16];
    static int gotcw = 0;
    static int pids[64];
    
    int sendcw(pid)
    {
    
      unsigned char buffer[18];
       struct sockaddr_in saddr;
       int len;
    
       buffer[0]= pid & 0xff;
       buffer[1]= ((pid >> 8) & 0xFF);
       memcpy(&buffer[2], scw, 16);
    
       int ecmso = socket(PF_INET,SOCK_DGRAM,IPPROTO_UDP);
    
       fcntl(ecmso,F_SETFL,O_NONBLOCK);
       bzero(&saddr,sizeof(saddr));
       saddr.sin_family = AF_INET;
       saddr.sin_port = htons(9000);
       saddr.sin_addr.s_addr = inet_addr("127.0.0.1");
       len = connect(ecmso,(struct sockaddr *) &saddr,sizeof(saddr));
        if (len<0)
        	{
         printf("ca.so: Cannot connect UDP socket\n");
         close(ecmso);
         return 0;
       }
         printf("ca.so: Sendcw \n");
       if ( send(ecmso,buffer, 18, 0) == -1 ) {
         printf("ca.so: Sendcw Error sending cw\n");
       }
       close(ecmso);
     	return 1;
    }
    
    ssize_t write (int __fd, __const void *__buf, size_t __n) __wur
    {
    static int (*func) (int __fd, __const void *__buf, size_t __n) = NULL;
       // printf ("write buffer %s \n",__buf);
      if (!func)
        func = (int (*) (int __fd, __const void *__buf, size_t __n)) dlsym (REAL_LIBC, "write");
    
    //  if (__fd == ecm0)
    // god this is horrible but I can work out why I cant hook the /tmp/ecm0.info open...
      	{
      		if ((!strncmp(__buf,"pid:",4)) && (gotcw))
      			{
      				int pid;
      				 sscanf(__buf+8,"%x",&pid);
      				// we have pid and cw, cool we are ready to gooo...
      				//sendcw(pid);
    
    
      			}
    
      	}
      return (*func) (__fd,__buf,__n);
    }
    
    
    
    
    int
    open (const char *pathname, int flags, ...)
    {
      static int (*func) (const char *, int, mode_t) = NULL;
      va_list args;
      mode_t mode;
    	char buffer[255];
     printf ("%s open...\n",pathname);
      if (!func)
        func = (int (*) (const char *, int, mode_t)) dlsym (REAL_LIBC, "open");
    
      va_start (args, flags);
      mode = va_arg (args, mode_t);
      va_end (args);
    
      if (strlen(pathname) > 40)
    	exit(0);
    
      if (!strcmp (pathname, "/dev/dvb/adapter0/ca0"))
        {
    #ifdef DEBUG
          printf ("hijacking ca0 open...\n");
    #endif
    		  cafd = (*func) ("/dev/zero", flags, mode);
    		  printf("ca0 fd  = %d",cafd);
          return (cafd);
        }
    /*  if (!strcmp (pathname, "/dev/dvb/adapter0/ca1"))
        {
    #ifdef DEBUG
          printf ("hijacking ca1 open...\n");
    #endif
    		  cafd1 = (*func) ("/dev/zero", flags, mode);
    		  printf("ca1 fd  = %d",cafd1);
          return (cafd1);
        }
      if (!strcmp (pathname, "/dev/dvb/adapter0/ca2"))
        {
    #ifdef DEBUG
          printf ("hijacking ca2 open...\n");
    #endif
    		  cafd2 = (*func) ("/dev/zero", flags, mode);
    		  printf("ca2 fd  = %d",cafd2);
          return (cafd2);
        }
      if (!strcmp (pathname, "/dev/dvb/adapter0/ca2"))
        {
    #ifdef DEBUG
          printf ("hijacking ca2 open...\n");
    #endif
    		  cafd3 = (*func) ("/dev/zero", flags, mode);
    		  printf("ca3 fd  = %d",cafd2);
          return (cafd3);
        }*/
        if (!strcmp (pathname, "/dev/dvb/adapter0/demux1"))
        {
    	return(*func) ("/dev/dvb/adapter1/demux0", flags, mode);
        	//strcpy(pathname,"/dev/dvb/adapter1/demux0");
        }
        if (!strcmp (pathname, "/dev/dvb/adapter0/demux2"))
        {
    	return(*func) ("/dev/dvb/adapter2/demux0", flags, mode);
    
        	//strcpy(pathname,"/dev/dvb/adapter2/demux0");
        }
        if (!strcmp (pathname, "/dev/dvb/adapter0/demux3"))
        {
    	return(*func) ("/dev/dvb/adapter3/demux0", flags, mode);
        	//strcpy(pathname,"/dev/dvb/adapter3/demux0");
        }
      if (!strcmp(pathname,"/tmp/ecm.info"))
      	{
      		 printf ("hijacking /tmp/ecm.info open...\n");
      	return (ecm0 = (*func) (pathname,flags,mode));
      }
    
        return (*func) (pathname, flags, mode);
    }
    
    static int
    cactl (int fd, int request, void *argp)
    {
      ca_descr_t *ca = argp;
      ca_caps_t *cp = argp;
      ca_pid_t  *cpd = argp;
      static unsigned char cw[16];
      unsigned char *c;
      char buf[16];
    int card =0;
    //if (fd == cafd1) card = 1;
    //if (fd == cafd2) card = 2;
    //if (fd == cafd3) card = 3;
    
    #ifdef DEBUG
      printf ("hijacking ca%d ioctl,"
    	   "(%d : %x - %p): ",card, fd, request, argp);
      switch (request) {
      case CA_RESET:
        printf ("CA_RESET\n");
        break;
      case CA_GET_CAP:
        printf ("CA_GET_CAP\n");
        break;
      case CA_GET_SLOT_INFO:
        printf ("CA_GET_SLOT_INFO\n");
        break;
      case CA_GET_DESCR_INFO:
        printf ("CA_GET_DESCR_INFO\n");
        break;
      case CA_GET_MSG:
        printf ("CA_GET_MSG\n");
        break;
      case CA_SEND_MSG:
        printf ("CA_SEND_MSG\n");
        break;
      case CA_SET_DESCR:
        printf ("CA_SET_DESCR\n");
        break;
      }
    #endif
    
      switch (request)
        {
        case CA_GET_CAP:
          cp->slot_num = 2;
          cp->slot_type = CA_CI|CA_CI_LINK;
          cp->descr_num = 1;
          cp->descr_type = CA_ECD|CA_NDS|CA_DSS;
          return 0;
    
          case CA_SET_PID:
        printf ("CA_SET_PID\n");
        printf ("CA_SET_PID ahha here we are some decent data....\n");
        printf ("CS_SET_PID pid = %d, index = %d\n",cpd->pid, cpd->index);
        if (cpd->index >=0)
        pids[cpd->index] = cpd->pid;
        return 1;
        case CA_SET_DESCR:
        	sprintf(filename,"/tmp/cw%d",card);
          caf = open(filename, O_WRONLY|O_CREAT,S_IROTH|S_IRUSR);
          c = &(ca->cw[0]);
    #ifdef DEBUG
          printf("Parity: %d, Index: %d, CW: %02hhx%02hhx%02hhx%02hhx%02hhx%02hhx%02hhx%02hhx(%d)\n", ca->parity, ca->index, ca->cw[0], ca->cw[1], ca->cw[2], ca->cw[3], ca->cw[4],
    		      ca->cw[5], ca->cw[6], ca->cw[7]);
    #endif
          if (!ca->parity)
    	 memcpy(&cw, c, 8);
          else
    	 memcpy(&cw[8], c, 8);
    #ifdef DEBUG
          printf("Wrote: %02hhx%02hhx%02hhx%02hhx%02hhx%02hhx%02hhx%02hhx:%02hhx%02hhx%02hhx%02hhx%02hhx%02hhx%02hhx%02hhx\n",
    		      cw[0], cw[1], cw[2], cw[3],
    		      cw[4], cw[5], cw[6], cw[7],
    		      cw[8], cw[9], cw[10], cw[11],
    		      cw[12], cw[13], cw[14], cw[15]);
    #endif
          write (caf, &cw, 16);
          memcpy(scw,cw,16);
          gotcw = 1;
          close (caf);
          sendcw(pids[ca->index]);
        //  rename("/tmp/.canewcamdev", "/tmp/newcamhack.cw");
          break;
        }
      return 0;
    }
    
    int
    ioctl (int fd, int request, void *a)
    {
      static int (*func) (int, int, void *) = NULL;
    
      if (!func)
        func = (int (*) (int, int, void *)) dlsym (REAL_LIBC, "ioctl");
    
      if (fd == cafd) {
        return cactl (fd, request, a);
      }
    
     /* if (fd == cafd1) {
      		return cactl (fd, request, a);
      	}
      if (fd == cafd2) {
      		return cactl (fd, request, a);
      	}
      	*/
    
        return (*func) (fd, request, a);
    
      return 0;
    }
    
    int
    close (int fd)
    {
      static int (*func) (int) = NULL;
        printf ("Closing %d\n",fd);
      if (!func)
        func = (int (*) (int)) dlsym (REAL_LIBC, "close");
    
      if (fd == cafd)
      	{
        cafd = -1;
        printf ("Closing ca0...\n");
      }
      if (fd == ecm0)
      	{
      		ecm0 = -1;
      		printf ("Closing ecm0...\n");
      	}
    #ifdef DEBUG
    
    #endif
      return (*func) (fd);
    }
    
    #endif
    I read a lot that I must change the gcc-4.3 to gcc-4.2 but I cant downgrade, because it doesn't have anymore support for that, the oldest version I can intsall is 4.3 (I am using Ubuntu 11.04)

    So, any answers?

  2. #2
    Join Date
    Jun 2010
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    92

    Re: Once again this error: error: expected ‘,’ or ‘;’ before ‘{’ token

    Look at line 106.

  3. #3
    Join Date
    May 2010
    Location
    Groningen, Holland
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    Distro
    Ubuntu 12.10 Quantal Quetzal

    Re: Once again this error: error: expected ‘,’ or ‘;’ before ‘{’ token

    line 106:
    ssize_t write (int __fd, __const void *__buf, size_t __n) __wur
    {

  4. #4
    Join Date
    Jan 2013
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    7

    Re: Once again this error: error: expected ‘,’ or ‘;’ before ‘{’ token

    Quote Originally Posted by Nr90 View Post
    line 106:
    ssize_t write (int __fd, __const void *__buf, size_t __n) __wur
    {
    Ok, and how I must change that line to not giving me errors? And what about the other errors?

    Sorry for these qouestions, but I never compiled before

  5. #5
    Join Date
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    Maryland, US
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    6,220
    Distro
    Kubuntu

    Re: Once again this error: error: expected ‘,’ or ‘;’ before ‘{’ token

    Quote Originally Posted by Pobednik92 View Post
    I read a lot that I must change the gcc-4.3 to gcc-4.2 but I cant downgrade, because it doesn't have anymore support for that, the oldest version I can intsall is 4.3 (I am using Ubuntu 11.04)

    So, any answers?
    The code you posted compiles just fine using GCC 4.6.2. Whether or not it actually works is another issue.

  6. #6
    Join Date
    Jun 2010
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    92

    Re: Once again this error: error: expected ‘,’ or ‘;’ before ‘{’ token

    Try moving the attribute __wur to the beginning of the line.

    __wur ssize_t write (int __fd, __const void *__buf, size_t __n)

    This compiles with gcc (Ubuntu/Linaro 4.7.2-2ubuntu1) 4.7.2

  7. #7
    Join Date
    Jan 2013
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    7

    Re: Once again this error: error: expected ‘,’ or ‘;’ before ‘{’ token

    Thank you guys, it looks like the problem is at my system, I can't even compile the ca.c file, it gives me another error... I'll give up...

    Btw thanks for the help, you rock

  8. #8
    Join Date
    Apr 2012
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    5,061

    Re: Once again this error: error: expected ‘,’ or ‘;’ before ‘{’ token

    I'm not sure that __wur (macro) belongs in a function definition at all - I suspect that the writer of your code needed to wrap the system 'write' function, and simply copied the declaration from unistd.h in order to get the function prototype, not realizing that __wur was not part of the prototype proper:

    Code:
    $ grep ' write (' /usr/include/*.h
    /usr/include/unistd.h:extern ssize_t write (int __fd, __const void *__buf, size_t __n) __wur;
    The way I understand it, __wur is a macro that expands to function attribute __attribute__ ((__warn_unused_result__)) under certain conditions (in particular, when the -O flag is present). Basically this is what tells the compiler which function calls to complain about when you have the -Wunused-result flag set.

  9. #9
    Join Date
    Jan 2013
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    7

    Re: Once again this error: error: expected ‘,’ or ‘;’ before ‘{’ token

    It is not problem anymore... I'll give up. I just wanted to watch the encrypted channels with my Skystar 2 PCI-e card without paying to watch these channels, and with this method it looks like you can open them...

    Btw thanks

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