I've used gnome and lxde quite a lot, not so much xfce. It seems to be hard(er) to scale the screen size of xfce than those of the other two desktop environments. Anyway, with the ultra-light weight lxde it works, and you need not distort it. 800x600 makes 'everything bigger' without distortion (at least for me), but at the left and right parts of the screen it's black. It is somewhat blurred, but not too bad. I think it is worth testing.
Originally Posted by jancellor
If you install one of these packages
sudo apt-get install lubuntu-desktop
you will be able to select desktop environment at the login screen. Try if you get something better with lxde! If not, you can easily remove the newly installed package.
sudo apt-get install lxde
What about changing resolution in Windows? You can test it and go back if you don't like it.
The ultimate solution would be to get a big external monitor, where everything can be bigger simply because the screen is big. So if you mirror your internal screen to the external one it will be big (somewhat blurred because of interpolation of the pixels, but still quite good). But of course, it costs money.