For the purposes of last night's testing, I did not back up the Windows boot files in the EFI (sda1) partition. However, that brings me to further explanation of my setup.
My Vaio came preloaded with Windows 7, a 20GB restore partition, and a bunch of extra software. I took that hard drive out, stuck another one in, and installed Windows 7 fresh. In the install, it actually alerted me that the drive was formatted incorrectly for EFI, and made the necessary adjustments, creating sda1 (EFI boot), sda2 (msftres), and sda3 (Windows).
I went ahead and plugged in the stock drive and Sony partitioned it as such:
Part - "LABEL" size flags
sdc1 - "SONYSYS" 260MiB hidden
sdc2 - "Recovery" 18.90GiB hidden, diag
sdc3 - [no label] 260MiB boot
sdc4 - [no label] 128MiB msftres
sdc5 - [no label] 445GiB <-- Windows
The two interesting partitions here are sdc1 and sdc3. After mounting each of them, these are their file structures:
sdc1 (SONYSYS, hidden flag)
sdc3 (no label, boot flag)
fonts/ ## (Several *.ttf files)
Hopefully the way I structured the paths above makes sense.
BCD bootmgfw.efi da-DK/ es-ES/ hu-HU/ memtest.efi pt-BR/ tr-TR/
BCD.LOG bootmgr.efi de-DE/ fi-FI/ it-IT/ nb-NO/ pt-PT/ zh-CN/
BCD.LOG1 BOOTSTAT.DAT el-GR/ Fonts/ ja-JP/ nl-NL/ ru-RU/ zh-HK/
BCD.LOG2 cs-CZ/ en-US/ fr-FR/ ko-KR/ pl-PL/ sv-SE/ zh-TW/
So you're right, there is something called BCD. So this further research brings more questions:
*Which of the two partitions should I copy data from? I'm thinking sdc3.
*What do I need to copy from the original drive?
*Where should I put it?
*How should I configure grub?
You asked whether I can boot to Windows from the UEFI menu. This menu you reference, do you speak of the UEFI version of grub, or are you talking about a menu within the BIOS? If the second option, I think my friend's new computer has an EFI menu, but as far as I know, my laptop does not. I've tried repeatedly hitting F11, as well as F12 at boot-up, but nothing happens.
Thanks for all the help!