Well, I'm not entirely sure what happened, but my Ubuntu partition is hosed. If I try to do a standard boot, I'm stuck with a blank monitor after the Grub menu. Selecting "Recovery Mode" shows me the following:
The stack trace follows that, and the system hangs.
run-init: /sbin/init: No such file or directory
Kernel panic - not syncying: Attempted to kill init!
Pid: 1, comm: run-init Not tainted 3.2.0-34-generic #53-Ubuntu
My first thought was that the filesystem got corrupted somehow (maybe an update or a nasty reboot), so I booted to my my flash drive (Ubuntu Live CD). Following a few other similar threads online, I ran:
Followed by this:
fsck found a _bunch_ of errors and fixed them, but I still get stuck with the same error when I try to boot...
sudo fsck -yv /dev/sda1