This command wasn't available on my system and even after installing it it hasn't helped. But I have upgraded now my virtual machine to look to the exact error message. After the trigger for an icon theme this appears:
After installing libgdk-pixbuf2.0 and running the command (the last 2 directories were missing) nothing changed. All icons are still invisible or have an error symbol. Curiously my virtual machine got this error message too but is unaffected by this bug.
(gtk-update-icon-cache-3.0:7343): GdkPixbuf-WARNING **: Cannot open pixbuf loader module file '/usr/lib/i386-linux-gnu/gdk-pixbuf-2.0/2.10.0/loaders.cache': Datei oder Verzeichnis nicht gefunden
This likely means that your installation is broken.
Try running the command
gdk-pixbuf-query-loaders > /usr/lib/i386-linux-gnu/gdk-pixbuf-2.0/2.10.0/loaders.cache
to make things work again for the time being.
Edit: Your edited command doesn't know the argument --replace.