Re: Can root discover other users passwords
Generally speaking, wherever passwords are stored these days, they are encrypted before storage. The idea is that it should take an inordinately long length of time to "break" the encryption, assuming the algorithm to be strong enough.
If you can get your hands on a password hash, as you certainly can with root access, then you can try a variety of common approaches to cracking the hash. Rainbow tables, dictionary attacks and brute force attacks are the usual barrage of solutions. However, if the algorithm is chosen well (or just applied enough times), and the password long enough with a good charset, then the basic answer is no. You're stumped.
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