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Thread: Installing Linux, a dual boot system with Windows and Linux

  1. #1
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    Installing Linux, a dual boot system with Windows and Linux

    Hi all
    This is a Ubuntu only variant of a thread I started here

    PDF version of this guide - http://www.mediafire.com/?vuvfmgfm02j
    md5sum 42befee063ab7317d5791d8983ca6052
    -------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    Installing linux alongside windows can be quite daunting for new users. The fear of losing data is always there, besides other problems like corrupting your boot record, getting a completely unusable system at the end, etc. The purpose of this tutorial is to simplify the process by the use of screenshots of an actual installation (a picture is equal to a thousand words someone said).

    Assesing your hard disk, partitions
    To install linux on your PC you should first make some free space available on your hard disk for the install. Click
    on Start->Control Panel->Performance and Maintainance->Administrative Tools->Computer Management



    Click on Disk Management System



    I have covered a few possible scenarios you might face.

    [list][*]You have a 40 GB hard disk made into four more or less equal partitions. You can see your partitions and their corresponding drive letters (C,D,etc.) in the figure below.



    The idea is to free at least 20 GB for our linux install. This might seem like a lot and other's might disagree, but if you are looking for a full experience I'd recommend it. We will need this space later to make three partitons

    Swap - Space=1.5 to 2 times your RAM
    Root (designated as /) - stores your OS and system files, programs, etc. - Space approx 8GB
    Home (designated as /home) - like the Documents and Settings folder of Windows XP. Stores your preferences, bookmarks, wallpaper, My Documents and Desktop. - Space - remaining space

    The / is like the base directory in linux, into which all other directories (folders) are incorporated or "mounted". I took a very long time to understand the concept of "mounting". Don't worry about it for now, you will understand when the time is right.
    Last edited by nucleuskore; August 24th, 2008 at 07:57 PM.

  2. #2
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    Re: Installing Linux, a dual boot system with Windows and Linux

    So here you will have to backup the data in the last two partitions by writing it to a CD or DVD or copying to another hard disk, and delete them as shown below


    [*]You have a 40 GB hard disk with only one partition "C". This is the scenario in many laptops. The other partition may be a back up or EISA partition. Now you're in for a rough ride. If you have made the back up CDs and DVDs from the EISA partition using the tool the vendor has provided you, you can delete the EISA partiton but you will have to first backup your data, delete all partition using a partition manager like GParted, make a small C partiton, say 20 GB, with the ntfs filesystem using GParted, and then boot from your recovery cd/dvd and restore the system.
    [/list]

    Resizing Partitions is something I do not recommend with any tool unless you have uninterrupted power supply in your part of the country/world or a power back up solution that lasts for a few hours.

    Hardware check
    With the advances in Linux and the new kernels this step may not be necessary, but will help you in troubleshooting later if required.
    Click on Start->Control Panel->Performance and Maintainance->System
    Click on the Hardware tab->Device Manager button
    Make a note of the model numbers of your monitor, graphics card (display adapter), and any other devices.

    Installing Linux
    You are now going to install linux to the empty space on your hard disk that you prepared in the earlier step. Linux by itself is not a single monolithic entity unlike some popular operating systems. It is very much a collaborative effort. It consists of a core (also called a kernel) on which the entire system is built on an runs. Linux is modular. As you become more experienced, you will realise that you can add and remove modules depending on your requirement and create a highly customised system, to make a long story short - NO **** is forced down your throat. No hidden agandas, no long cryptic EULAs (the thingy which you blindly scroll down and click "I agree" without batting an eyelid), and no leash up your **** (pardon the bad language but that's exactly how I feel).

    So let's get started !!

    The first step in installing any linux distro involves booting from a live media, usually a CD or DVD.
    Ubuntu CDs are available for free from SHIPIT
    You can also download it from Ubuntu website or ask a LUG (Linux User Group) near you.

    To boot from the cd or dvd your bios should have it as the first boot device. Alternatively some bios allow you to select the boot device. The key used for this varies with different manufacturers. To see if your bios has a boot device select menu please refer the manual of your motherboard or take help from a more experienced friend.

    I suggest you try the following - insert the cd or dvd and start your pc. If your pc boots too fast simply restart windows with the cd or dvd in the drive and see what happens. Very often the optical drive would have been set as the first boot device and the system boots from the cd automatically. If it still goes to windows and refuses to boot from your cd or dvd then you will have to adjust your bios settings or search for a boot menu as I described earlier.

    Ubuntu Installation
    If your pc boot successfully from your ubuntu cd you will see this screen



    It is asking you to select the language. Use your arrow keys to select the system language and press ENTER. You will then get this screen



    Use the Up and Down arrow keys on your keyboard to select the option Install Ubuntu and press ENTER. The system will start booting.


  3. #3
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    Re: Installing Linux, a dual boot system with Windows and Linux

    You will see the Welcome screen in your language. Make sure your language selection is right and click forward



    Select your timezone from the list, it is arranged by continent, and click forward



    Select your keyboard type, most common is US International (see picture below), but make sure and use the test box made available to you to check your selection. Check not only for alphabets, capital and small, but also for special characters like ' " ? / + ; If all these are correct then your choice of keybord layout is fine, click forward



    You will now be presented with the partitioning options. Ubuntu "intelligently" offers to resize your windows partition and do everything automatically. I advise AGAINST using this option, and instead select the manual option and click forward



    You will now come to a screen which shows you the layout of partiitons on your hard disk. Note the nomenclature used in linux. The first hard disk is labelled as /dev/sda Partitions withing this are labelled as /dev/sda1 /dev/sda2 so on and so forth. Now in this example, there are some numbers missing inbetween as you can see. These have gone for the extended partition. /dev/sda5 is actually my D drive, but as it is not formatted it shows up as an unknown partition. /dev/sda1 is the C drive and has an ntfs filesystem.



    Select free space and click on the "New Partition" button as shown below



    Select type of partition logical, size 1.5 times your RAM (512 in this example), location for new partition Begining, Use as: swap area, and click OK


  4. #4
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    Re: Installing Linux, a dual boot system with Windows and Linux

    The proposed partition table layout will get updated as shown



    and you will get this



    Again select free space and click New Partition. Select type of partition logical, size 8000 MB or more, location for new partition Begining, Use as: Ext 3 journaling file system, mount point: / and click OK



    The proposed partition table layout will get updated. Again select free space and click New Partition. Select type of partition logical, size: don't touch anything, let it be as it is, location for new partition Begining, Use as: Ext 3 journaling file system, mount point: /home and click OK. Note that you will manually have to type in the mount point in the box provided as /home



    This is how your proposed partition table layout finally looks like.




    Remember, nothing has actually happened to your partitions as yet, this is just a proposed layout, so if you make a mistake in your newly created linux partitions you can simply go back and redo the partitioning. Note the partition table down in a book and keep it safely. You will require it to rescue your system if need be, and to install the GAG boot loader later (optional but desirable. Click Forward.

    You will now be asked some details about yourself. You will have to give a password. Make sure you don't forget it. Click Forward


  5. #5
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    Re: Installing Linux, a dual boot system with Windows and Linux

    Import your windows settings. This is optional you can leave it unchecked as shown in the second figure and click forward.



    Click Install, the installation will begin with the formatting and copying of files to your hard disk.


    At the end of installation click on the Restart Now button



    As the system shuts down, you will get a message telling you to remove the cd from the drive and press ENTER to reboot the system which you must do.


    As the system boots for the first time after your installation, you will see this screen. This is the GRUB boot loader from where you can choose between Ubuntu Linux (first entry) and Windows (last entry), using the up and down arrow keys on your keyboard and press ENTER. If you do not respond in 10 seconds it will boot to Ubuntu automatically.



    Enjoy your Ubuntu Linux!!!
    ---------------------------------------------------------------------------
    Installing the GAG Bootloader

    This may be difficult for first time users who have no idea on command line usage in dos or windows. If you are familiar with the cd command to browse directories then you may proceed with Method 1, else use Method 2.

    Ubuntu and OpenSUSE by default use the GRUB bootloader which is again, by default, written to the first sector of your hard disk, a location for the Master Boot Record (MBR). If anything happens to this boot record because of a virus attack or a system bug your system simply won't boot. Updating Ubuntu or OpenSUSE over the internet, updates (especially kernel updates) sometimes mess up the boot loader because of wrong entries or pointing. You'll find enough of these instances in the official forums. This can be avoided if you put your GRUB bootloader in your / partition instead of your MBR. In your MBR you can install any third party bootloader like GAG as I have described below. This is optional and if you are happy with GRUB you need not install GAG. If you want to learn more about GRUB go through this wonderful article.

    Download GAG from here

    http://www.mediafire.com/?q1hhft5azyi

    You can also get the latest version from here
    http://gag.sourceforge.net/download.html

    Save it on your linux desktop.

    Installation Method 1:
    Right click on the file and select Extract here. Open a terminal and browse to the folder using the cd command. In that folder enter the linux folder using the cd command.

    At prompt type

    sudo ./copy-file.sh

    and press ENTER

    Then type

    sudo ./gag-install /dev/sda

    and press ENTER. If this does not work (in OpenSUSE), type su and press ENTER to become root, and then type

    ./gag-install /dev/sda

    and press ENTER.

    Restart your PC

    Installation Method 2 (EASY):
    Right click on the file you just downloaded and select Extract here. Open the folder, you will find a file cdrom.iso in it, write that file to a cd using the default cd writing software in linux (simply double click on it and burn). Restart your PC and boot from the cd.


    Whichever of the above you have followed, you will now get this screen



    Press 4 to install GAG. You will get this screen next


  6. #6
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    Re: Installing Linux, a dual boot system with Windows and Linux

    Select your keyboard (usually 1 in India)

    then your language



    You will then come to this screen. press S to setup the bootloader



    The alphabets you have to press to execute a function are highlighted in red in the GAG set up screen. Keys are case insensitive. Press A to add an operating system



    As you can see, partition A is the floppy, B is the first windows partition, so press B



    You will now have to type a name, say Windows



    You will have to now type a password, optionally, so press ENTER to avoid giving one



    You now have to select an icon, Press C for windows



    Now you will come back to this screen

  7. #7
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    Re: Installing Linux, a dual boot system with Windows and Linux

    Press A to add an operating system



    Now if you remember the first partition you made was swap, so that's D, followed by /, that's E over here (refer the partition table in your notes). So press E (in this example).

    You will now have to type a name, say Linux


    You will have to now type a password, optionally, so press ENTER to avoid giving one



    You now have to select an icon, Press D for Linux



    Now you will come back to this screen



    Press H to save in the hard disk, you will get this message, press ENTER



    Press R to return to the main menu, you should see this



    Extra options in the setup include setting a timer for a default OS to boot.
    Read the index.html file in the docs folder of the gag file you downloaded.
    All the best !!!

  8. #8
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    Re: Installing Linux, a dual boot system with Windows and Linux

    Moved to Community Cafe.
    Learning is not attained by chance, it must be sought for with ardor and attended to with diligence. Abigail Adams ( 1744 - 1818 ), 1780;

    My blog Poetry and More Free Ubuntu Magazine

  9. #9
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    Re: Installing Linux, a dual boot system with Windows and Linux

    THANK YOU nucleuskore ! I'm going to install Kubuntu 8.04.1 KDE4
    on a new external HD, 320 Gig, preformatted NTFS. Your Pics
    and descriptions answered most of my questions. But I understand
    this version of Kubuntu can read and write to NTFS files. So,
    I assume I can set up 3 partions for Kubuntu on the new
    external usb drive. One is for swap (1. 5 to 2 times RAM)
    correct ? and 2 other but I don't understand what size I
    should make them and why 2 more ? Since this version of Kubuntu
    writes & reads NTFS files can't I make the 2 other linux
    partitions NTFS ? I only want to partition a total of 100
    Gig on the new external usb HD and leave the balance as
    free space for now. see other thread posted today by me,
    hlamborn, hlamborn@charter.net....

  10. #10
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    Re: Installing Linux, a dual boot system with Windows and Linux

    Excellent tutorial, the screenshot illustrations will be extremely helpful to anyone installing Ubuntu for the first time.

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