I had the problem too, but it was my fault. My computer hung, so I switched it off. Afterwards I got this error.
To fix it is easy. Just boot from a USB-stick or CD and do fsck.
List your partitions:
If you haven't got an encrypted disk just do (where sda5 is the corrupted partition):
If you are using an encrypted hard-disk (i do) do
where sda5 is the encrypted partition and someting is the name under which you will find the partition (/dev/mapper/something).
sudo cryptsetup luksOpen /dev/sda5 something
The install Lvm and look for volumes :
The last command should list the at least one volume-group
sudo apt-get install lvm2
Enable it or the ones you're interested in
Now list the logical volumens
sudo vgchange -a y groupname
Your drive you're interested in should now appear under /dev/mapper
do a fsck
Lots of errors! Off course you want to have them all fixed. REBOOT!
sudo fsck /dev/mapper/logical-volume
This worked for me!