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Thread: HOW TO: Automating Cisco Router, Switch, and Firewall backups

  1. #1
    Join Date
    Jun 2005
    Location
    Albuquerque, New Mexico
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    Ubuntu Development Release
    HOW TO: Automating Cisco Router, Switch, Firewall backups.


    Step 1: Download and install rancid.
    --------------------------------------------------------------------

    For additional information on rancid's complete functionality see the following site.

    http://www.shrubbery.net/rancid/


    Install rancid, build-essential, and expect.

    Code:
    sudo apt-get install rancid-core rancid-util build-essential expect
    Step 2: Create .cloginrc file in the rancid directory.
    --------------------------------------------------------------------


    Opend a terminal and type the following.

    Code:
    sudo gedit /var/lib/rancid/.cloginrc
    Add entries for each router, switch, pix firewall you'd like to backup by using the following format.

    Code:
    add password    IPADDRESS       {telnetpassword}      {enablepassword}
    IPADDRESS = the actual ip address of the device you want to backup.
    telnetpassword = the actual telnet password for the device you want to backup.
    enablepassword = the actual enable password for the device you want to backup.

    The "{}" are required. At the bottom of the .clogin add the following line if you require SSH access to your equipment.

    Code:
    add method     *    telnet ssh
    With this clogin will first try to telnet then ssh to your equipment.



    Step 3: Protect the .cloginrc file.
    --------------------------------------------------------------------

    Code:
    sudo chmod 640 /var/lib/rancid/.cloginrc
    Step 4: Create a backup directory for backup configs.
    --------------------------------------------------------------------


    Code:
    sudo mkdir /var/lib/rancid/backups/

    Step 5: Change ownership of the /usr/lib/rancid/backups/ directory.
    --------------------------------------------------------------------


    Code:
    sudo chown -R rancid.rancid /var/lib/rancid/backups/

    Step 6: Change permissions to the rancid directory.
    --------------------------------------------------------------------


    Code:
    sudo chmod 770 /var/lib/rancid/
    Step 7: Set password for rancid account
    --------------------------------------------------------------------

    Code:
    sudo passwd rancid
    Step 8: Test .cloginrc
    --------------------------------------------------------------------

    As the user rancid test accessing your equipment.

    Code:
    su rancid
    Now using once of the network devices that you've put in the .cloginrc for rancid type the following in the open terminal.

    Code:
    /usr/lib/rancid/bin/clogin  IPADDESSOFDEVICE
    You should see the clogin telnet (or ssh) to the device in question and switch to enable mode on the device. If everything works the proceed on to step 8. Otherwise take a look at your /var/lib/rancid/.cloginrc .



    Step 9: Test grabing a backup config from the same device.

    --------------------------------------------------------------------

    As rancid run the following test to make sure that you have everything setup correctly.

    Code:
    /usr/lib/rancid/bin/clogin  -c 'write term' IPADDESSOFDEVICE > /var/lib/rancid/backups/test.cfg

    Verify the output:

    Code:
    less /var/lib/rancid/backups/test.cfg

    If everthing checks out move on to step 10.


    Step 10: Create the bash script for the backups
    --------------------------------------------------------------------

    Here's a sample script for you to copy and paste into a file (i.e. network_device_backup.sh) and to tweak, add, or change for your needs. But save the script somewhere the rancid user can access and execute the script from (i.e./var/lib/rancid/). If you are planning on backing up a various types of routers, switches, firewalls etc you may want to create serveral differnet scripts.

    Code:
    #!/bin/bash 
    # Variables 
     
    clogin=/usr/lib/rancid/bin/clogin 
    path=/var/lib/rancid/backups/ 
    tdy=`date +%m%d%Y` 
     
    #backup network device 
     
    $clogin -c 'write term' 192.168.0.1 > $path/foo-$tdy.cfg
    NOTE: When rancid is installed the default shell for the rancid user is csh. So for the script above to work the "#!/bin/bash' is needed.



    Step 11: Make the script executable to rancid.
    --------------------------------------------------------------------

    Code:
    sudo chmod 700 /path/to/script

    Step 12: Test the backup script.
    --------------------------------------------------------------------

    Test your script logged in as rancid.

    Code:
    su rancid

    Now from wherever you put the backup script verify that it works before adding it as a cron job. For this example I'm going to use the following location /var/lib/rancid/.scripts/routers.sh with the output path being /var/lib/rancid/backups/.

    Code:
     ./var/lib/rancid/.scripts/routers.sh
    verify the config file that was generated to the output path you specified.

    Code:
    less /var/lib/rancid/backups/foo-12202005.cfg

    Step 13: Add script to CRON.
    --------------------------------------------------------------------

    As rancid add your script to CRONTAB.
    Code:
    su rancid
    Now add an entry for your script.

    Code:
    crontab -e
    To backup your equipment every Friday at 5pm should look like...

    0 17 * * 5 /var/lib/rancid/.scripts/routers.sh >/dev/null 2>&1

    Save the entry (crtl+x).

    Verify the entry in crontab is correct.

    Code:
    crontab -l
    For more infor on CRONTAB see the following post.
    http://ubuntuforums.org/showthread.php?t=102626

    You're all set... enjoy!
    Last edited by GrammatonCleric; January 15th, 2006 at 01:31 AM.
    "Nice jail. Looks strong."
    - H. Houdini

  2. #2
    Join Date
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    Re: HOW TO: Automating Cisco Router, Switch, and Firewall backups

    Quote Originally Posted by GrammatonCleric View Post
    As the user rancid test accessing your equipment.

    Code:
    su rancid
    NOTE: When rancid is installed the default shell for the rancid user is csh. So for the script above to work the "#!/bin/bash' is needed.
    Looks like RANCIDs user in 8.04 has it's shell set to /bin/false, so using 'su' will silently fail. You can use vipw to change it to /bin/bash.

  3. #3
    Join Date
    May 2007
    Beans
    59

    Re: HOW TO: Automating Cisco Router, Switch, and Firewall backups

    Quote Originally Posted by GrammatonCleric View Post
    Open a terminal and type the following.

    Code:
    sudo gedit /var/lib/rancid/.cloginrc
    Add entries for each router, switch, pix firewall you'd like to backup by using the following format.

    Code:
    add password    IPADDRESS       {telnetpassword}      {enablepassword}
    IPADDRESS = the actual ip address of the device you want to backup.
    telnetpassword = the actual telnet password for the device you want to backup.
    enablepassword = the actual enable password for the device you want to backup.

    The "{}" are required. At the bottom of the .clogin add the following line if you require SSH access to your equipment.

    Code:
    add method     *    telnet ssh
    With this clogin will first try to telnet then ssh to your equipment.
    Very nice and useful howto! Just what I've been looking for!
    But what if my routers use local authentication with username/password and not only password?
    How exactly would the /var/lib/rancid/.cloginrc file look in this case?
    TIA
    Ziv

  4. #4
    Join Date
    Jun 2005
    Location
    Albuquerque, New Mexico
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    Distro
    Ubuntu Development Release

    Re: HOW TO: Automating Cisco Router, Switch, and Firewall backups

    Hi Ziv,

    The .cloginrc format is.

    Code:
     add password <router name glob> <vty passwd> <enable passwd>
    
     add user <router name glob> <username>
           The default user is $USER (i.e.: the user running clogin).
    
     add userprompt <router name glob> <username prompt>
           What the router prints to prompt for the username.
           Default: {"(Username|login|user name):"}
    
     add userpassword <router name glob> <user password>
           The password for user if different than the password set
           using 'add password'.
    
     add passprompt <router name glob> <password prompt>
           What the router prints to prompt for the password.
           Default: {"(\[Pp]assword|passwd):"}
    
     add method <router name glob> {ssh} [...]
           Defines, in order, which connection method(s) to use for a device
           from the set {ssh,telnet,rsh}.  e.g.: add method * {ssh} {telnet} {rsh}
           will attempt ssh connection first.  if ssh fails with connection
           refused (i.e.: not due to authentication failure), then try telnet,
           then rsh.
           Default: {telnet} {ssh}
    
     add noenable <router name glob>
           equivalent of -noenable on the cmd line to not enable at login.
    
     add enableprompt <router name glob> <enable prompt>
           What the router prints to prompt for the enable password.
           Default: {"\[Pp]assword:"}
    
     add enauser <router name glob> <username>
           This is only needed if enable asks for a username and this
           username is different from what user is set to.
    
     add autoenable <router name glob> <1/0>
           This is used if you are automatically enabled by the login process.
    
     add cyphertype <router name glob> <ssh encryption type>
           Default is 3des.
    
     add identity <router name glob> <path to ssh identity file>
           Default is your default ssh identity.
    Hope this helps.

    - GC
    "Nice jail. Looks strong."
    - H. Houdini

  5. #5
    Join Date
    May 2007
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    59

    Re: HOW TO: Automating Cisco Router, Switch, and Firewall backups

    Yes, it helps, thanks!

  6. #6
    Join Date
    May 2007
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    59

    Re: HOW TO: Automating Cisco Router, Switch, and Firewall backups

    Another little question, let's say I set the default user "rancid" on every router with priv 15
    is there a way I can set a global variable of the user to be used on every device? or I still need to add an entry for every single device even the same user/pass is set on all of them?

  7. #7
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    Ubuntu 10.04 Lucid Lynx

    Arrow Re: HOW TO: Automating Cisco Router, Switch, and Firewall backups

    Quote Originally Posted by zivley View Post
    Is there a way I can set a global variable of the user to be used on every device?
    Code:
    add user *              $env(USER)
    will set the default user for all devices...

  8. #8
    Join Date
    Sep 2008
    Beans
    19

    Unhappy Re: HOW TO: Automating Cisco Router, Switch, and Firewall backups

    Hi,

    I have followed the howto, and are able to login to an HP Switch using:
    /usr/lib/rancid/bin/clogin IPADDESSOFDEVICE

    But when I try to use:
    /usr/lib/rancid/bin/clogin -c 'write term' IPADDESSOFDEVICE > /var/lib/rancid/backups/test.cfg

    I get the following error:
    couldn't compile regular expression pattern: parentheses () not balanced
    while executing
    "expect -nobrace -re { [24;1H([^#>\r\n]+)?[#>](\([^)\r\n]+\))?} {} -re {[
    ]+} { exp_continue }"
    invoked from within
    "expect {
    -re $reprompt {}
    -re "\[\n\r]+" { exp_continue }
    }"
    (procedure "run_commands" line 25)
    invoked from within
    "run_commands $prompt $command"
    ("foreach" body line 169)
    invoked from within
    "foreach router [lrange $argv $i end] {
    set router [string tolower $router]
    # attempt at platform switching.
    set platform ""
    send_user ..."
    (file "/usr/lib/rancid/bin/clogin" line 749)


    I have found that if I comment out line 625 that looks like this:
    regsub -all {^(.{1,11}).*([#>])$} $reprompt {\1([^#>\r\n]+)?[#>](\\([^)\\r\\n]+\\))?} reprompt

    or if I put a ] after \1 the error disappear, but the output in test.cfg is just some weird mess.

    Any suggestions?

    -Ronni

  9. #9
    Join Date
    Oct 2008
    Beans
    2

    Unhappy Error Message

    Thanks for the information.
    I have a problem with the configuration. I do everything as mentioned but when I am ready to execute "/usr/lib/rancid/bin/clogin IPADDRESSDEVICE" it gives the error "/home/rancid/.cloginrc must not be world readable/writable", so I have no idea how to solve this problem. If some body has an idea?

  10. #10
    Join Date
    Oct 2008
    Beans
    2

    Wink Re: HOW TO: Automating Cisco Router, Switch, and Firewall backups

    Never mind I found the problem. The rancid user has to be in the root group and not under the rancid group.

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