I am having a problem simular to apperrently alot of people in here however none of the solutions anyone else provides seem to work. When I boot I get several error messages:

mount: mounting /dev/mapper/ubuntu-root on /root failed: Invalid argument
mount: mounting /dev on /root/dev failed: No such file or directory
mount: mounting /sys on /root/sys failed: No such file or directory
mount: mounting /proc on /root/proc failed: No such file or directory
Target filesystem doesn't have /sbin/init.
No init found. Try passing init= bootrag


Then when I have run a live cd and tried following several different advice I get the following:

sudo mkdir /media/root
sudo mount /dev/sda1 /media/root

mount: unknown filesystem type 'LVM2_member' (I have tried installing lvm2 and this command still doesn't work)

sudo fdisk /dev/sda1

The number of cylinders for this disk is set to 36449.
There is nothing wrong with that, but this is larger than 1024,
and could in certain setups cause problems with:
1) software that runs at boot time (e.g., old versions of LILO)
2) booting and partitioning software from other OSs
(e.g., DOS FDISK, OS/2 FDISK)
(It then comes up to a command prompt....I have been running this server for about a month before now without problems)

sudo e2fsck /dev/sda1

e2fsck 1.41.4 (27-Jan-2009)
e2fsck: Superblock invalid , trying backup blocks...
e2fsck: Bad magic number in super-block while trying to open /dev/sda1

The superblock could not be read or does not describe a correct ext2
filesystem. If the device is valid and it really contains an ext2
filesystem (and not swap or ufs or something else), then the superblock is corrupt, and you might try running e2fsck with an alternate superblock:
efsck2 -b 8193 <device>

sudo e2fsck -b 8193 /dev/sda1

e2fsck 1.41.4 (27-Jan-2009)
e2fsck: Superblock invalid , trying backup blocks...
e2fsck: Bad magic number in super-block while trying to open /dev/sda1

The superblock could not be read or does not describe a correct ext2
filesystem. If the device is valid and it really contains an ext2
filesystem (and not swap or ufs or something else), then the superblock is corrupt, and you might try running e2fsck with an alternate superblock:
efsck2 -b 8193 <device>


I am obviously in way over my head here because a) I am really new to ubuntu and b) I have no idea what in the world a super block is.

Someone please help... if you need anymore info please let me know (I am going to need step by step direction).