I'm starting this howto because a lot of people seem to be under the impression that you have to reboot Ubuntu to get certain changes applied. However, when working with Ubuntu, or Linux in general, it is important to remember that rebooting is a Windows CrazyThing (TM). The only thing you should really have to reboot a Linux machine for is for changes to the kernel. All other things you can reload/restart/whatever at run-time. This is due to the modular nature of the Linux system. Why do you think Unix systems have the highest uptime?
Well anyway, lets get this started. I propose we make this kind of a collaborative effort since i'm by no means an expert (yet) and there's some stuff I don't know. So i'll just add what I do know and we can just add to each others knowledge, ok? Alright then.
The graphical user interface
As most of you know, you can refresh the gnome panel with the command:
However, when screwing around with your Xorg.conf, you have to restart X in order to apply your changes. You can do this with the key combination:
WARNING: This is a very powerful command! It won't ask you if you are sure, or if you would like to save anything you have running; it just shuts off everything in brute force. A more 'civilized' way might be to do '/etc/init.d/gdm restart', but i'm going to need confirmation on that.
A default Ubuntu system has lots of services running. You can get a list of them with:
For example, lets say you have a samba server running, and you made a change to the samba config file. You can restart samba like this:
Or if a change has occurred in your network environment (new cable plugged in, interface removed, etc), you could do:
sudo /etc/init.d/samba restart
And so on..
sudo /etc/init.d/networking restart
This is all I can think of right now. I'm sure there's lots of other stuff, but in general just remember: rebooting in order to apply stuff is a Windows CrazyThing, and if you feel like you have to do it there is probably a better way.
I encourage anyone to add to this Howto!