* Please post text, not images in the future. Let's save some storage bits.
Originally Posted by user2010
* That information says only sda3 is a Linux-compatible partition. All the others are either FATxx or NTFS. You cannot boot Linux from those file systems.
* You didn't ask this, but USB2 is extremely slow for running any OS.
To me it appears that everything is fine and you just need to mount the specific partitions that you'd like to access. For temporary use, that can be accomplished using the sudo mount command. To learn how read the man page by typing - man mount.
You'll probably end up with something like:
$ mkdir /mnt/usb
$ sudo mount -t vfat /dev/sdb1 /mnt/usb
I didn't check your exact partition names since they aren't easily seen on this screen. In the man page for mount, it specifies the different file system types that are supported. For NTFS, you may need to be careful about the character set (UTF8) and user/group settings too. I dunno since every system is a little different.
$ sudo mount -t ntfs /dev/sda1 /mnt/win_c
Mount requires a directory already exist to mount things onto. There are many subtle options for mount, so it is best to read the man page so you get all that are necessary to your particular setup and understand the good and bad for each.