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Lord Rocket
February 28th, 2011, 02:21 PM
Hi guys. Not quite sure if this is 'programming' really, but here seems to be the least inappropriate place to put this, so here goes...

Alright, I'm having some real problems getting a very simple bash script to work. Basically, all I want it to do is rip a CD using CD Paranoia and then encode the resulting files into FLACs (although I get the same problem using LAME). The problem is that it refuses to tag the file if I try to use your standard bash $VARIABLES in any way.

I've also tried something similar from the command line, with the same results.

Anyway, the bash file is full of lines that look like this:


SONGTITLE="blah blah whatever"\
flac -T "ARTIST=$1" -T "ALBUM=$2" -T "TITLE=$SONGTITLE" -T "TRACK=01" -o "01 $SONGTITLE.flac" track01*.wav

Real simple stuff, like I said, just a bunch of commands being invoked one after t'other with some CL parameters thrown into the mix. I figure once I get this sort of thing to work reliably I can try something more complicated.

Anyway, this creates tag-free files generally called " .flac". This isn't what I'd like to happen but I really don't see what's wrong with the above. I have tried looking for other people's scripts and looking at basic bash tutorials, but those haven't helped much (generally they're too simple or way over my head). I've also tried changing the quotation marks to both graves and inverted commas, changing where the quotes go, and removing the quotes entirely but to no avail. Entering the tags in manually (eg. -T "TITLE=I Deliberately Ran Over Your Dog" etc.) works just fine, but that's not really what I'm after.
Can anyone tell me what I'm doing wrong here?

And, yes I could use a GUI program instead, but I'm trying to teach myself a bit of bash. It isn't going very well.

DaithiF
February 28th, 2011, 05:05 PM
there is a trailing '\' after the songtitle assignment -- this will have the effect of escaping the newline that follows and cause bash to treat this and the next flac line as a single line rather than 2 ... which in turn means that songtitle does not get set in the current shell environment. so I would remove the trailing '\' character and try again.

Lord Rocket
March 1st, 2011, 03:21 AM
That simple, huh. Thanks - it works now.

OK stupid question time: how come I can change variables on the command line in cases like "EDITOR=nano visudo" or "CFLAGS=-O3 -march=native" et cetera but I need to newline this stuff in this particular case? Seems arbitrary.

DaithiF
March 1st, 2011, 09:40 AM
the only stupid question is the one that goes unasked :)

actually its a very good question. As you point out its quite common to do something like:
var=somevalue somecommand

which has the effect of populating var with somevalue for the purposes of somecommand's execution environment, but has the happy result of not changing the current shell environment. Which means you can do one-off updates to variables for the running a single command without affecting that variable for the rest of your script or interactive session

In your example you were basically doing:
SONGTITLE="xyz.mp3" flac blah blah -o "$SONGTITLE" but yet SONGTITLE wasn't being populated as you expected.

A couple of excerpts from man bash explains whats going on:
Firstly this part -- which explains what I said above:

If no command name results, the variable assignments affect the
current shell environment. Otherwise, the variables are added to
the environment of the executed command and do not affect the cur‐
rent shell environment.

Secondly this part:

SIMPLE COMMAND EXPANSION
When a simple command is executed, the shell performs the following
expansions, assignments, and redirections, from left to right.

1. The words that the parser has marked as variable assignments
(those preceding the command name) and redirections are
saved for later processing.

2. The words that are not variable assignments or redirections
are expanded. If any words remain after expansion, the
first word is taken to be the name of the command and the
remaining words are the arguments.

so, taking your line:
SONGTITLE="xyz.mp3" flac blah blah -o "$SONGTITLE"
step 1: songtitle assigment gets saved for later processing
step 2: the non-variable assignment part (flac blah blah -o "$SONGTITLE") gets expanded
see whats happenend? SONGTITLE assignment has not yet been performed when the command gets expanded, so $SONGTITLE expands to nothing.

You can see this happening too in a simpler example:

test="xyz" echo "$test"
-- nothing is output

test="xyz" eval "echo \$test"
xyz

in the second example we delay the expansion of $test until the echo command itself is being run, and by then test has indeed been set and so we get the result xyz being output.

so the conclusion is to be aware of (and wary of) the order in which variables get expanded vs. assigned.