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alsamixer sound settings
By default sound is muted after an install or version upgrade.
1. If you don't have sound click on the speaker icon (top toolbar- left of date >> unmute or click sound settings and increase volume (sound settings is the window to the right in screenshot)
2.Still no sound, open a terminal, click on the dash button (top left-- black/gray box with Ubuntu trademark)type "terminal and icon will appear>>click on it and terminal will open and icon will appear in launcher (6th one down black box with arrow and dash in it (you can right click on that in the launcher and lock it to the launcher if you want.
3.type alsamixer in terminal and press enter (left window in screenshot.)
4.You have to use the arrows on your keyboard to navigate.
5. Press F3 and all playback volume controls will appear, control hightlighted in red can be adjusted using up/down arrows...If muted (MM) press m and increase volume (up arrow).
6. To select sound card press F6, use arrows to make change, press enter and press esc to close window.
7.See the 6 or 7 arrows on the right side of the mixer---that means that there are more volume controls to the right of the last one you can see---use the right arrow to view them..turn up the cd and pcm if there is one.
8.If s/pdif controls are all you see press F5.
9.If you are using HDMI try increasing the s/pdif volumes, and you will have to select the digital card in the sound settings.
GOOD LUCK!!

Photo Added
June 28th, 2012
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Added by
jmfal